paper 121 (영한)

Beginning of European cities, Knossos Palace Greeks built cities on mountain tops, and they were called “acropolis” (city on a hilltop, singular/plural). For instance, there is an acropolis in Athens, and Greeks built the Parthenon temple on the mountain top.

The UB states that about 12,000 years ago, a brilliant tribe of Andites migrated to Crete. They were highly skilled in textiles, pottery and plumbing.

Later, during the neolithic period (circa 8000 BC) descendants of Adamson went to Crete
. These Cretans built cities where water is easily accessible, usually at the foot of a mountain so they would receive water to clean the cities. The sewage system collected wastewater from the community, which was dumped in the adjacent rivers.

In the Knossos palace, there is an open plaza in the center
, and buildings around it rose five stories high in some places. The palace included chambers for the royal family in the basement. At the ground level, Cretans built terracota sewage pipes to carry the wastewater outside the palace. They were the inventor of plumbing. The palace was the center of the communal activities, and some officers and workers seem to have lived in houses outside the palace.

Map of Knossos Palace, 1650 BC

Map of Rome (, A handbook of Rome and the Compagna, 1899, John Murray)

Basically, Romans copied the city planning idea from the Minoans of Crete
, but their cities were much larger. Romans built eleven aqueducts to supply fresh water to the citizens. They also constructed Cloaca Maxima to drain marshes and carry the waste water to the River Tiber.

Rome’s city plan
Roman forum. This picture seems to have been taken on a hilltop, where Capitolium is located. Jesus frequently visited the Forum, and the road to the Capitolium still exists today. The Forum is surrounded by various temples and other public buildings. Citizens would come to the Forum to meet people, buy fire insurance, conduct their business and buy produce. Apartments were at Palatino hill, and a shopping mall was in Trajan’s Market nearby.
Trajan’s Market

The city of Pompeii follows the same plan. There is a marcellum (market) adjacent to the Forum. The marcellum was a retail market, not a wholesale market. Private houses and apartments are located on Palatino hill, a little away from the public buildings.

Three conditions for Michael’s bestowal

This paper not only gives the cultural background for Michael’s bestowal on the planet, but also implies he picked the right timing.

As the old proverb says, “All roads lead to Rome,” all the Empire’s roads radiated out from the capital city. Roman roads were essential for the dissemination of Jesus’ teachings by the Christian missionaries during the first century. After the fall of the Roman Empire, it was again dangerous for people to travel outside one’s city or village.

In short, this paper describes three essential elements in the cultural environment for the success of Michael’s bestowal.

(1) His teachings must be disseminated in the first century, His coming had to wait until the Roman roads were built and traveling was safe at least in Europe for the Christian missionaries.

(2) He must be raised in Palestine because Melchizedek’s teachings still survived and Jesus was able to recruit some disciples there.

(3) Because of Greek’s influence in the Mediterranean world, the Europeans spoke the same language
, and Jesus’ ideas spread quickly for the ensuing 3 centuries. The pace slowed thereafter; it took more than a millenium for his teachings to reach Asia.

P.1332 – §1 Acting under the supervision
of a commission of twelve members of the United Brotherhood of Urantia Midwayers,
conjointly sponsored by the presiding head of our order and the Melchizedek
of record, I am the secondary midwayer of onetime attachment to the Apostle
Andrew, and I am authorized to place on record the narrative of the life
transactions of Jesus of Nazareth as they were observed by my order of earth
creatures, and as they were subsequently partially recorded by the human
subject of my temporal guardianship. Knowing how his Master so scrupulously
avoided leaving written records behind him, Andrew steadfastly refused to
multiply copies of his written narrative. A similar attitude on the part
of the other apostles of Jesus greatly delayed the writing of the Gospels.
supervise < L: supervidere = super(over) + videre (위에서 보다) = 감독

commission < com (together) + mittere (send, throw) = 위원회, 사명

missile = 던질 수 있는 (물건), 유도탄

of record = 기록에 적혀 있는

attach < German: ad (to) +stakon (stake, 말뚝), 고정시키다

avoid < ex +voide (empty) < L: vacare (be empty), R: vacant

conjoint = con (together) + joint (함께) = 공동의

our order = 우리 계급

partially = 부분적으로

scrupulous < scruple (양심의 가책, (신발 속에 있는) 날카로운 차돌), 꼼꼼한

steadfast = stead (place, 자리) + fast (secure, 단단한) = 굳건한

secondary = 2차적,

primary, secondary, tertiary, quarternary, quinary, senary, septenary, octonary, nonary, denary (However, these words after quarternary are not used often.)

quarantine < quadraginta (40), After the black death in 1348, Venetia required any plague suspected ship to stay 40 days before disembarking.

primary industry = produces raw materials

secondary industry = the industry that converts raw materials into something else. manufacturing industry

tertiary industry = services using the outputs of the other industries (e.g., insurance, banking, transportation)


P.1332 – §2 Jesus did not come to this world during
an age of spiritual decadence; at the time of his birth Urantia was experiencing
such a revival of spiritual thinking and religious living as it had not
known in all its previous post-Adamic history nor has experienced in any
era since. When Michael incarnated on Urantia, the world presented the
most favorable condition for the Creator Son’s bestowal that had ever
previously prevailed or has since obtained. In the centuries just prior
to these times Greek culture and the Greek language had spread over Occident
and near Orient, and the Jews, being a Levantine race, in nature part
Occidental and part Oriental, were eminently fitted to utilize such cultural
and linguistic settings for the effective spread of a new religion to
both East and West. These most favorable circumstances were further enhanced
by the tolerant political rule of the Mediterranean world by the Romans.

decadence < L (decadere): decay = 썩은 상태

era = 시대

prior to (명사) = ~ 이전에

Occident (서양, 서부) < L: occidere (fall down), 해가 지는 쪽

Orient (동양, 동부) < oriri (rise). = rising or East

Anatolia = (now Turkey), G: East (when viewed from Greece)

prevail < pre (before) + valere (strong, have power, value)

favorable (유리한) – favor <favere (show kindness)

tolerate (allow, 참아 주다)

tolerant (참아 주는, 관대한)

obtain < ob (in front of) + tenere (hold) = acquire

Mediterranean = med (middle) +terra (land) = 지중해

eminent < eminere (stand out, project, 튀어나오다), 탁월한

post = 이후 x pre-. post-Adamic (아담 이후),

post-WWII = 2차 대전 이후

setting = 배경

P.1332 – §3 This entire combination of world influences
is well illustrated by the activities of Paul, who, being in religious
culture a Hebrew of the Hebrews, proclaimed the gospel of a Jewish Messiah
in the Greek tongue, while he himself was a Roman citizen.


combine = com (together) + bi (two/twice) = 합치다, 통합하다

entire < integrum (whole, 전체), integer (whole number)

citizen = cita (city) dweller (도시 거주자)

proclaim < pro (forth) +clamare (shout) = 선포하다

P.1332 – §4 Nothing like the civilization of the
times of Jesus has been seen in the Occident before or since those days.
European civilization was unified and co-ordinated under an extraordinary
threefold influence:

P.1332 – §5 1. The Roman political and social systems.

P.1332 – §6 2. The Grecian language and cultureand
philosophy to a certain extent.

P.1332 – §7 3. The rapidly spreading influence of
Jewish religious and moral teachings.

civilization (문명) < civil (예의 바른) vs barbaric (야만)

threefold = 3배, 3가지

influence < influere (flow into), 영향을 미치다

moral (도덕적, 윤리적, 정신적) < mores (사회의 기준)

moral victory (정신적 승리)

Grecian = adj of Greece, Greek

to a certain extent = 어느 정도까지

P.1332 – §8 When Jesus was born, the entire Mediterranean
world was a unified empire. Good roads, for the first time in the world’s
history, interconnected many major

P.1333 – §0 centers. The seas were cleared of pirates,
and a great era of trade and travel was rapidly advancing. Europe did
not again enjoy another such period of travel and trade until the nineteenth
century after Christ.

empire < imperare (명령하다) – imperator (사령관, 황제)

cleared of = free from pirates (해적이) 없어지다

century = 100 of anything, 세기

centurion (usually 80 soldiers)

P.1333 – §1 Notwithstanding the internal peace and
superficial prosperity of the Greco-Roman world, a majority of the inhabitants
of the empire languished in squalor and poverty. The small upper class
was rich; a miserable and impoverished lower class embraced the rank and
file of humanity. There was no happy and prosperous middle class in those
days; it had just begun to make its appearance in Roman society.
notwithstanding (noun), ~에도 불구하고, ~했는데도

internal = within (내부의)

superficial = super (above) + facies (face, form), 피상적, 겉표면의, 겉핥기로

squalor < squalere (be dirty)

poverty < pauper (poor), 가난

prosper < pro (for) +spere (hope), 번성하다

humanity = 인류, 인간성 = humanitas (인성)

commerce = com + mercium (trade) = 상업, 무역

P.1333 – §2 The first struggles between the expanding
Roman and Parthian states had been concluded in the then recent past,
leaving Syria in the hands of the Romans. In the times of Jesus, Palestine
and Syria were enjoying a period of prosperity, relative peace, and extensive
commercial intercourse with the lands to both the East and the West.
Parthia = 예전에 페르시아 근방에 있던 국가

conclude < con + claudere (shut), 종결하다

leave in the hands of ~의 손에 맡기다

then recent past = 최근의 과거, 당시에 보아서 최근.


P.1333 – §3 The Jews were a part of the older Semitic
race, which also included the Babylonians, the Phoenicians, and the more
recent enemies of Rome, the Carthaginians. During the fore part of the
first century after Christ, the Jews were the most influential group of
the Semitic peoples, and they happened to occupy a peculiarly strategic
geographic position in the world as it was at that time ruled and organized
for trade.

people = 민족

Semitic race = 셈 족속

fore part = 전반 부

happen to occupy, 어쩌다가/우연히 ~자리를 차지하다

peculiar < pecu (cattle), peculium (private property)

pecuniary < pecu (cattle) < pecunia (money)

P.1333 – §4 Many of the great highways joining the
nations of antiquity passed through Palestine, which thus became the meeting
place, or crossroads, of three continents. The travel, trade, and armies
of Babylonia, Assyria, Egypt, Syria, Greece, Parthia, and Rome successively
swept over Palestine. From time immemorial, many caravan routes from the
Orient passed through some part of this region to the few good seaports
of the eastern end of the Mediterranean, whence ships carried their cargoes
to all the maritime Occident. And more than half of this caravan traffic
passed through or near the little town of Nazareth in Galilee.
antiquity (옛날, 고대) <- antique (오래 된)

sweep over = 휩쓸다, 압도하다

from time immemorial (기억도 할 수 없이 오랜 시절부터)

immemorial = im (not) + memorial = 기억할 수 없이

crossroads (singular): a crossroads (십자로)

successive <- sub (next to, after) + cedere (come after), 뒤를 잇는

cargo, cargoes (짐), 하물

caravan < Persian word (same pronunciation), 隊商.

P.1333 – §5 Although Palestine was the home of Jewish
religious culture and the birthplace of Christianity, the Jews were abroad
in the world, dwelling in many nations and trading in every province of
the Roman and Parthian states.
abroad, 바깥에 있는

province (정복된 지역) = pro (before) + vincere (conquer, 정복하다)

P.1333 – §6 Greece provided a language and a culture,
Rome built the roads and unified an empire, but the dispersion of the
Jews, with their more than two hundred synagogues and well-organized religious
communities scattered hither and yon throughout the Roman world, provided
the cultural centers in which the new gospel of the kingdom of heaven
found initial reception, and from which it subsequently spread to the
uttermost parts of the world.
Rome built the roads (50,000 miles were stone-paved (돌로 만든 길), 경부선 길이의 170배가 된다 (로마 공화국 + 제국).

US highway = 43,000 miles

uttermost = 가장 멀리 떨어진

synagogue < G: syn (together, alike) +agein (lead, move), 회당

P.1333 – §7 Each Jewish synagogue tolerated a fringe
of gentile believers, “devout” or “God-fearing” men,
and it was among this fringe of proselytes that Paul made the bulk of
his early converts to Christianity. Even the temple at Jerusalem possessed
its ornate court of the gentiles. There was very close connection between
the culture, commerce, and worship of Jerusalem and Antioch. In Antioch
Paul’s disciples were first called “Christians.”
synoptic = syn (together) + optikos/opsis (seeing),

synoptic gospel, 共觀福音 (Matthew, Mark, and Luke)

convert = con +vertire = turn around, 전향하다

fringe = edge (변두리, 비주류)

gentile < gentilis (same family) < gentis (race, clan)

proselyte < G: proseluthos (stranger, convert)

devout < devotus (devoted, given up by vow), 경건한

possess < possidere < potis (able) + sedere (sit), 소유하다

ornate < ornatus < ornare (장식하다)

commerce < com (together) +mercari (trade, buy), 상업, 무역

안티오크에 세워전 첫 기독교회. 이 도시에서 처음으로 “기독교도”라는 낱말이 생겨났다.

P.1333 – §8 The centralization of the Jewish temple
worship at Jerusalem constituted alike the secret of the survival of their
monotheism and the promise of the nurture and sending forth to the world
of a new and enlarged concept of that one

P.1334 – §0 God of all nations and Father of all
mortals. The temple service at Jerusalem represented the survival of a
religious cultural concept in the face of the downfall of a succession
of gentile national overlords and racial persecutors.

secret of survival (살아남는 비결)

monotheism = mono (one) + theism (belief in God), 일신교 사상

temple service = 성전에서 드리는 예배

overlord = 봉건 사회의 통치자

nurture < nutire (feed), R: nutrition (영양)

persecute = per (through) + sequi (follow) = 죽 찾아 다니다, 사냥하다. 박해하다

downfall = 몰락

P.1334 – §1 The Jewish people of this time, although
under Roman suzerainty, enjoyed a considerable degree of self-government
and, remembering the then only recent heroic exploits of deliverance executed
by Judas Maccabee and his immediate successors, were vibrant with the
expectation of the immediate appearance of a still greater deliverer,
the long-expected Messiah.
suzerain = sup (above) + … = sovereign, but not supreme = ruler

Roman suzerainty = 로마의 통치

exploit < explicare = ex (out) + plicare (fold) = 전개, 착취하다, 성공적 활동, 업적,

vibrant = 활기 있는, 생동하는

< vibrare (move to and fro, 진동하다) R: vibrato

execute < excutare < ex (out) + sequi (follow), 집행하다

P.1334 – §2 The secret of the survival of Palestine,
the kingdom of the Jews, as a semi-independent state was wrapped up in
the foreign policy of the Roman government, which desired to maintain
control of the Palestinian highway of travel between Syria and Egypt as
well as the western terminals of the caravan routes between the Orient
and the Occident. Rome did not wish any power to arise in the Levant which
might curb her future expansion in these regions. The policy of intrigue
which had for its object the pitting of Seleucid Syria and Ptolemaic Egypt
against each other necessitated fostering Palestine as a separate and
independent state.

A model of Herod’s temple.

intrigue (속임수, 술수) < intrigare (속이다, 계교를 꾸미다)

necessitate <necessitare 필요하게 만들다

pit against each other 서로 분쟁하게 만들다

separate < separare = se (apart) + parare (prepare), 구분하다

Roman policy, the degeneration of Egypt, and the progressive
weakening of the Seleucids before the rising power of Parthia, explain
why it was that for several generations a small and unpowerful group of
Jews was able to maintain its independence against both Seleucidae to
the north and Ptolemies to the south.

This fortuitous liberty and independence
of the political rule of surrounding and more powerful peoples the Jews
attributed to the fact that they were the “chosen people,” to
the direct interposition of Yahweh. Such an attitude of racial superiority
made it all the harder for them to endure Roman suzerainty when it finally
fell upon their land. But even in that sad hour the Jews refused to learn
that their world mission was spiritual, not political.

degenerate = de(away, off) + genere (give birth) = 퇴화하다

알렉산더가 죽은 뒤에 (323 BC), 그의 영토는 다음의 네 장군이 나눠가졌다.

Lysimachus = Thrace (남동 유럽) + Asia Minor

Cassander = Macedonia and Greece

Ptolemy I = ruled Egypt, Palestine, Cilicia (modern day Turkey)

Seleucus I Nicator = founded Seleucid empire (Mesopotamia, the Levant, Persia + part of India)

fortuitous (우연한) < forte (by chance) = accidental, fors = chance

interposition = inter (between) + ponere (to place)

refuse < refutare < recusare (거절하다)

P.1334 – §3 The Jews were unusually apprehensive
and suspicious during the times of Jesus because they were then ruled
by an outsider, Herod the Idumean, who had seized the overlordship of
Judea by cleverly ingratiating himself with the Roman rulers. And though
Herod professed loyalty to the Hebrew ceremonial observances, he proceeded
to build temples for many strange gods.
apprehensive (우려하는) < apprehend (grasp, 붙잡다, 파악하다, 걱정하다)

suspect < suspicere = sub + specere (look at), 의심하다

ingratiate (환심을 사다) = in + gratia (favor) = bring oneself into favor (환대받는 처지에 들어가다)

profess = pro +fateri (declare openly), 공언하다

Idumea = 유대 밑 지방 이름

ceremony = 거룩히 지키는 예식

observance = 준수, ob (in front of) + servare (watch)

P.1334 – §4 The friendly relations of Herod with
the Roman rulers made the world safe for Jewish travel and thus opened
the way for increased Jewish penetration even of distant portions of the
Roman Empire and of foreign treaty nations with the new gospel of the
kingdom of heaven. Herod’s reign also contributed much toward the further
blending of Hebrew and Hellenistic philosophies.
penetrate (관통하다) < penitus (inmost)

treaty = agreement (국가간의 조약, 협의)

reign <regnum (kingdom, 통치), regere (통치하다)

philosophy < G: philosophia (love of wisdom), 철학

P.1334 – §5 Herod built the harbor of Caesarea, which
further aided in making Palestine the crossroads of the civilized world.
He died in 4 B.C., and his son Herod Antipas governed Galilee and Perea
during Jesus’ youth and ministry to A.D. 39. Antipas, like his father,
was a great builder. He rebuilt many of the cities of Galilee, including
the important trade center of Sepphoris.

P.1334 – §6 The Galileans were not regarded with
full favor by the Jerusalem religious leaders and rabbinical teachers.
Galilee was more gentile than Jewish when Jesus was born.

Remains of a hippodrome (horse + race) in Caesarea

BC = before Christ,

AD = Anno Domini (year of the Lord)

유태인의 표현

BCE = before the Common Era = BC

CE = Common Era = AD

ministry, 봉사, 그런 직무


P.1334 – §7 Although the social and economic condition
of the Roman state was not of the highest order, the widespread domestic
peace and prosperity was propitious

P.1335 – §0 for the bestowal of Michael. In the first
century after Christ the society of the Mediterranean world consisted
of five well-defined strata:

gentile (이방인) < gentilis (로마 종족, 나중에는 이방 민족)

stratum, strata (plural), 층, 계층, things that are spread out

prosper < pro (for) + spes (hope), according to expectation/hope, (기대한대로) 번성하다

propitious < pro (forth) + petere (go to), 유리한

P.1335 – §1 1. The aristocracy. The upper classes
with money and official power, the privileged and ruling groups.

P.1335 – §2 2. The business groups. The merchant
princes and the bankers, the traders–the big importers and exporters– the
international merchants.

aristocracy <aristos (G: noblest) + kratos (rule) > -cracy

import = in + portare (carry) = bring in, 수입

export = ex (out) + portare = carry out, 수출

privilege < privus (private) + leg (law), 특권

merchant < mercari (trade), 상인

P.1335 – §3 3. The small middle class. Although this
group was indeed small, it was very influential and provided the moral
backbone of the early Christian church, which encouraged these groups
to continue in their various crafts and trades. Among the Jews many of
the Pharisees belonged to this class of tradesmen.
backbone = 등뼈, 척추

belong to ~에 속하다

P.1335 – §4 4. The free proletariat. This group had
little or no social standing. Though proud of their freedom, they were
placed at great disadvantage because they were forced to compete with
slave labor. The upper classes regarded them disdainfully, allowing that
they were useless except for “breeding purposes.”
proletariat = 최하층 시민, 자식 낳는 의무가 있는 사람, 나중에는 무산 계급. proles (후손)

disdain (멸시하다) = dis(반대) +dignari (가치, 위엄)

P.1335 – §5 5. The slaves. Half the population of
the Roman state were slaves; many were superior individuals and quickly
made their way up among the free proletariat and even among the tradesmen.
The majority were either mediocre or very inferior.
mediore (평범) = medi (중간) + ocris (산, 꼭대기) = 중간 높이, 보통

inferior (열등) < infra (below)

P.1335 – §6 Slavery, even of superior peoples, was
a feature of Roman military conquest. The power of the master over his
slave was unqualified. The early Christian church was largely composed
of the lower classes and these slaves.
slavery 노예 제도

slave < sclavus (middle Latin) < ethnonym (종족 이름) Slav. In early Medieval wars, many Slavs were captured and enslaved

unqualified (조건을 붙이지 않은) = un (not) + qualificare (attribute a quality to, 품질을 제한하다)

compose < com (togethr) + poser (place), put together

P.1335 – §7 Superior slaves often received wages
and by saving their earnings were able to purchase their freedom. Many
such emancipated slaves rose to high positions in state, church, and the
business world. And it was just such possibilities that made the early
Christian church so tolerant of this modified form of slavery.
emancipate = ex (away) + mancipare (sell/transfer) = set free (해방)

modify < modificare = modus (measure) + facere (make) = 수정하다, 제한하다

possible < posse (be able) = 가능한

tolerate < tolerare (endure), 견디다, 참다

P.1335 – §8 There was no widespread social problem
in the Roman Empire in the first century after Christ. The major portion
of the populace regarded themselves as belonging in that group into which
they chanced to be born. There was always the open door through which
talented and able individuals could ascend from the lower to the higher
strata of Roman society, but the people were generally content with their
social rank. They were not class conscious, neither did they look upon
these class distinctions as being unjust or wrong. Christianity was in
no sense an economic movement having for its purpose the amelioration
of the miseries of the depressed classes.
ascend = ad (to, 에) + scandere (climb) = 올라가다

talent < talentum (leaning, 재주), balance, weight. later, sum of money (6000 drachmae) of silver

populace < popolo (people)

content with (~으로 만족하다)

distinction <distinguere (keep separate) 구별

ameliorate <ameliorare (grow better), 좋아지다

deteriorate < deteriorare (get worse), 나빠지다

misery < miseria (pitiful condition) 불쌍한 처지

P.1335 – §9 Although woman enjoyed more freedom throughout the Roman
Empire than in her restricted position in Palestine, the family devotion
and natural affection of the Jews far transcended that of the gentile
transcend <transcendre = trans (across, beyond) + scandere (climb) = 초월하다, 건너 뛰다

P.1335 – §10 The gentiles were, from a moral standpoint,
somewhat inferior to the Jews, but there was present in the hearts of
the nobler gentiles abundant soil of natural goodness and potential human
affection in which it was possible for the seed of Christianity to sprout
and bring forth an abundant harvest of moral character and spiritual achievement.
The gentile world was then dominated by four great philosophies, all more
or less derived from the earlier Platonism of the Greeks. These schools
of philosophy were:

standpoint = 견지, 입장

abundant <abundare (overflow) 넘치게 풍성한

potential (잠재성)

achieve < F: achever = a chef venir (come at the end, finish, accomplish) 성취하다

philosophy = philo (love) + sophia (knowledge, wisdom)

P.1335 – §11 1. The Epicurean. This school of thought
was dedicated to the pursuit of happiness. The better Epicureans were
not given to sensual excesses. At least

P.1336 – §0 this doctrine helped to deliver the Romans
from a more deadly form of fatalism; it taught that men could do something
to improve their terrestrial status. It did effectually combat ignorant

Epicurean (쾌락주의자)

deadly = 치명적

doctrine (teaching, 신조, 가르침) < doctor (teacher)

fatalism (운명론) < fate (운명)

are given to something (~에 빠지다)

terrestrial (지상의) <terra (땅)

effectual, 효과로 보면, 실질적으로

effective, 효과가 많은

combat = com (together) + battuere (fight) = 전투

ignorant = ig (not) +gnoscere (know) = 무지한

superstition (미신) < superstare (stand above), 어원 미상

P.1336 – §1 2. The Stoic. Stoicism was the superior
philosophy of the better classes. The Stoics believed that a controlling
Reason-Fate dominated all nature. They taught that the soul of man was
divine; that it was imprisoned in the evil body of physical nature. Man’s
soul achieved liberty by living in harmony with nature, with God; thus
virtue came to be its own reward. Stoicism ascended to a sublime morality,
ideals never since transcended by any purely human system of philosophy.
While the Stoics professed to be the “offspring of God,” they
failed to know him and therefore failed to find him. Stoicism remained
a philosophy; it never became a religion. Its followers sought to attune
their minds to the harmony of the Universal Mind, but they failed to envisage
themselves as the children of a loving Father. Paul leaned heavily toward
Stoicism when he wrote, “I have learned in whatsoever state I am,
therewith to be content.”





stoic <stoa (porch) = great hall where Zeno (335-263 BC) taught. 제논은 금욕주의학파를 세웠다. 페인트 칠한 스토아에서 가르쳤다는 데서 유래.

dominate (지배하다) < domus (house), dominus (Lord).

envisage = en (in) + visage (face) = 얼굴을 바라보다 = 마음에 선하게 그려보다 < videre (see)

sublime < sub (up to) + limen (lintel, threshold), R: limit (한계)

offspring = off + spring (솟아 나온 후손)

attune = 화음이 되게 조율하다

harmony (화음) < G: harmos (joint), harmonia (fit together)

virtue (미덕) <vertu (force, strength) < vir (man)

by virtue of (~의 덕분에, 의 힘으로)

reward = a fair return for good behavior (마땅한 보상)

P.1336 – §2 3. The Cynic. Although the Cynics traced
their philosophy to Diogenes of Athens, they derived much of their doctrine
from the remnants of the teachings of Machiventa Melchizedek. Cynicism
had formerly been more of a religion than a philosophy. At least the Cynics
made their religio-philosophy democratic. In the fields and in the market
places they continually preached their doctrine that “man could save
himself if he would.” They preached simplicity and virtue and urged
men to meet death fearlessly. These wandering Cynic preachers did much
to prepare the spiritually hungry populace for the later Christian missionaries.
Their plan of popular preaching was much after the pattern, and in accordance
with the style, of Paul’s Epistles.

cynic (견유학파) <kynikos (follower of Antisthenes) – dog-like, kynos (dog)

democratic = demos (people) + kratia (power, rule), 민주주의 식

missionary = 전도 사명에 파송된 자

epistle = epi (above) + stellein (send) = letter (편지)

apostle = apo (off) +stellein (send) = 파송된 자

P.1336 – §3 4. The Skeptic. Skepticism asserted
that knowledge was fallacious, and that conviction and assurance were
impossible. It was a purely negative attitude and never became widespread.
skeptic (회의주의자 ) < G: skepsis (doubt, inquiry)

fallacious (거짓된) < fallacia (거짓)

attitude <aptitudo (fit) 태도, 적성

exception < exceptio (take out) = ex (out) + capere (take)

conviction (1) 확신 (2) 정죄

convict (정죄, 유죄 선고) <convincere = con (with) + vincere (conquer) = convince (논리로 이기다, 확신)

P.1336 – §4 These philosophies were semireligious;
they were often invigorating, ethical, and ennobling but were usually
above the common people. With the possible exception of Cynicism, they
were philosophies for the strong and the wise, not religions of salvation
for even the poor and the weak.
semi = half, partly

ennoble (품위 있게, 고귀하게 만들다) = en(in, into) +noble (famous, well known), gnosere = come to know.

salvation (구원) < salvare (save)

the poor and the weak, 가난한 자와 약한 자


P.1336 – §5 Throughout preceding ages religion had
chiefly been an affair of the tribe or nation; it had not often been a
matter of concern to the individual. Gods were tribal or national, not
personal. Such religious systems afforded little satisfaction for the
individual spiritual longings of the average person.

precede (앞에 가다) = pre (before) + cedere (go)

average person = 보통 사람

satisfaction < satisfacere = satis (enough) + facere (make)

satiate (배부르게 하다, 만족시키다) < satis (enough)

afford (accomplish) < a-(on) +further (수행하다)

P.1336 – §6 In the times of Jesus the religions of
the Occident included:

P.1336 – §7 1. The pagan cults. These were a combination
of Hellenic and Latin mythology, patriotism, and tradition.

pagan < pagus (country) – paganus (villager) = 이교도

myth < mythos, 신화,

patriot < patris (fatherland), patrios (fathers)

P.1336 – §8 2. Emperor worship. This deification
of man as the symbol of the state was very seriously resented by the Jews
and the early Christians and led directly to the bitter persecutions of
both churches by the Roman government.

deify = deificare =deus (god) + facere (make), 신으로 만들다

resent < re (intensive force) + sentire (feel), 분개하다

persecute < per (through) + sequi (follow), 박해

pseudo < G: (거짓)

P.1337 – §1 3. Astrology. This pseudo science of
Babylon developed into a religion throughout the Greco-Roman Empire. Even
in the twentieth century man has not been fully delivered from this superstitious
astrology = astron (star) +logia (speaking, discourse, study) = 점성술

believe < G (glauben) 믿다

P.1337 – §2 4. The mystery religions. Upon such a
spiritually hungry world a flood of mystery cults had broken, new and
strange religions from the Levant, which had enamored the common people
and had promised them individual salvation. These religions rapidly became
the accepted belief of the lower classes of the Greco-Roman world. And
they did much to prepare the way for the rapid spread of the vastly superior
Christian teachings, which presented a majestic concept of Deity, associated
with an intriguing theology for the intelligent and a profound proffer
of salvation for all, including the ignorant but spiritually hungry average
man of those days.
mystery < misterium (secret)

promise < promittere = pro (forth) + mittere (send) = 미리 무엇을 약속하다

enamor = en (in) +amour (love) = 사랑에 빠지다

lower class 하층 계급

intriguing, 호기심을 자아내는

majestic, 위엄이 있는 < majus (major) = great

profound = pro (before) + fundus (bottom) = 심오한, 깊은

prepare = pre (before) + parare (ready) = 준비하다

proffer = pro + oferre (offer) = offer, proposal

ignore < ignorant = ig + noscere (not knowing), 무지한, 묵살하다

P.1337 – §3 The mystery religions spelled the end
of national beliefs and resulted in the birth of the numerous personal
cults. The mysteries were many but were all characterized by:

P.1337 – §4 1. Some mythical legend, a mystery whence
their name. As a rule this mystery pertained to the story of some god’s
life and death and return to life, as illustrated by the teachings of
Mithraism, which, for a time, were contemporary with, and a competitor
of, Paul’s rising cult of Christianity.

cult < cultus (worship) = 종파 및 그 예식

characterize < G: kharakter (stamping tool) + ize = engrave, 새기다, 특징을 가지다

pertain (~에 관계되다)

contemporary = con (with) + tempor (time), 당대의

for a time, 얼마 동안

P.1337 – §5 2. The mysteries were nonnational and
interracial. They were personal and fraternal, giving rise to religious
brotherhoods and numerous sectarian societies.

P.1337 – §6 3. They were, in their services, characterized
by elaborate ceremonies of initiation and impressive sacraments of worship.
Their secret rites and rituals were sometimes gruesome and revolting.

fraternal < frater (brother), 형제 같은

motto of the French Revolution: liberty, equality, fraternity

brotherhood = 형제 단체

sectarian < sequi (follow) < secta (following), 분파, 파벌, 종파

elaborate = ex (out) + labor (work) = 공을 들이다, 자세히 애를 써서 설명하다

initiate (가입시키다) < initiare < initium (begining)

impressive = im (in) + press = imprint (인상을 꾹 눌러주다)

sacrament (성찬, 또는 성스러운 예식) = sacer (sacred) < sacramentum (선서)

gruesome (Scandinavian) = unpleasant, horrible

revolting < revolvere (roll back), 먹은 것이 도로 올라오는

rite = 儀式

P.1337 – §7 4. But no matter what the nature of their
ceremonies or the degree of their excesses, these mysteries invariably
promised their devotees salvation, “deliverance from evil, survival
after death, and enduring life in blissful realms beyond this world of
sorrow and slavery.”

no matter what: ~이라도 상관없이

excess (무절제, 지나침) <excedere = ex (out) + cede (go), 도를 넘다

survive (살아남다) < super (beyond, over) + vivere (live)

endure = en (in) +durare (harden), 딱딱해지다, 견디다

R: durable, 오래 가는. durable goods (1년 이상, 예: 자동차. 집),

promise someone something, 누구에게 무엇을 약속하다

< pro (forward) + mittere (send)

P.1337 – §8 But do not make the mistake of confusing
the teachings of Jesus with the mysteries. The popularity of the mysteries
reveals man’s quest for survival, thus portraying a real hunger and thirst
for personal religion and individual righteousness. Although the mysteries
failed adequately to satisfy this longing, they did prepare the way for
the subsequent appearance of Jesus, who truly brought to this world the
bread of life and the water thereof.
confuse A with B (이것과 저것을 혼동하다)

confuse < confundere (mingle together), 섞다

popularity = 인기

portray = por (forth) + trahere (L: draw), 묘사하다, 그리다

hunger (German) = 배고픔

bring (German: bringen) = 가져오다

P.1337 – §9 Paul, in an effort to utilize the widespread
adherence to the better types of the mystery religions, made certain adaptations
of the teachings of Jesus so as to render them more acceptable to a larger
number of prospective converts. But even Paul’s compromise of Jesus’ teachings
(Christianity) was superior to the best in the mysteries in that:
utilize (It: utile) = 사용하다

adhere = ad (to, ~에) + haerere (stick) = ~에 달라붙다

prospective < prospectus (view), 전망이 있는, 가능성 있는

convert < con (altogether) + vertere (turn) = 완전히 돌다, 개종하다.

P.1337 – §10 1. Paul taught a moral redemption, an
ethical salvation. Christianity pointed to a new life and proclaimed a
new ideal. Paul forsook magic rites and ceremonial enchantments.

P.1337 – §11 2. Christianity presented a religion
which grappled with final solutions of the human problem, for it not only
offered salvation from sorrow and even from death, but it also promised
deliverance from sin followed by the endowment of a righteous character
of eternal survival qualities.

redeem = re(d) (back) + emere (buy) = buy back, 죄 지은 값을 물고 생명을 되찾다

redemption = 代贖 = (생명을 얻으려고) 돈으로 대신 갚다

forsake = (Dutch, ver (completely) +zaken (seek) = give up

ethics < Greek ethos (윤리)

deliver < de (away) + liberare (set free) = 구원하다

endow = en (in) + dotare (give) = 부여하다

eternal < aeternus (of an age, lasting) = 영원

grapple < 갈고리로 잡아 걸다, 파악하다.

P.1338 – §1 3. The mysteries were built upon myths.
Christianity, as Paul preached it, was founded upon a historic fact: the
bestowal of Michael, the Son of God, upon mankind.

P.1338 – §2 Morality among the gentiles was not necessarily
related to either philosophy or religion. Outside of Palestine it not
always occurred to people that a priest of religion was supposed to lead
a moral life. Jewish religion and subsequently the teachings of Jesus
and later the evolving Christianity of Paul were the first European religions
to lay one hand upon morals and the other upon ethics, insisting that
religionists pay some attention to both.

found < fundus (bottom) = 세우다, 기초를 쌓다

mankind = 인류

occur to ~에게 생각이 떠오르다

occur < occurrere = ob(against) + currere (run)

priest < presbyter (elder) < German: Priester (신부, 사제)

evolve = evolvere = ex (out of) + volvere (roll), 진화하다

insist = in (upon) + sistere (stand) = persist (고집하여 주장하다)


P.1338 – §3 Into such a generation of men, dominated
by such incomplete systems of philosophy and perplexed by such complex
cults of religion, Jesus was born in Palestine. And to this same generation
he subsequently gave his gospel of personal religionsonship with God.


incomplete = in (not) + completus (finished) = 불완전한, 무언가 빠진

perplex < per (through) + plexus (entangled), 속속들이 (밧줄, 머리털이) 엮이다, 혼란에 빠뜨리다. < plere (fill, 채우다, plus, 더하다)


P.1338 – §4 By the close of the first century before
Christ the religious thought of Jerusalem had been tremendously influenced
and somewhat modified by Greek cultural teachings and even by Greek philosophy.
In the long contest between the views of the Eastern and Western schools
of Hebrew thought, Jerusalem and the rest of the Occident and the Levant
in general adopted the Western Jewish or modified Hellenistic viewpoint.

close < claudere = 끝마치다, 끝

tremendous < tremere (tremble), 사람을 벌벌 떨게 만드는, 엄청난

modify < modus (형태) + facere (make), 모양을 바꾸다

contest < con + testare (witness), 경쟁하다. 길고 짧은 것을 재보다.

P.1338 – §5 In the days of Jesus three languages
prevailed in Palestine: The common people spoke some dialect of Aramaic;
the priests and rabbis spoke Hebrew; the educated classes and the better
strata of Jews in general spoke Greek. The early translation of the Hebrew
scriptures into Greek at Alexandria was responsible in no small measure
for the subsequent predominance of the Greek wing of Jewish culture and

And the writings of the Christian teachers were soon to appear
in the same language. The renaissance of Judaism dates from the Greek
translation of the Hebrew scriptures. This was a vital influence which
later determined the drift of Paul’s Christian cult toward the West instead
of toward the East.

dialect = G: dia (across) + legein (speak) = 지방어

prevail = pre + valere (have power) = 지배하다

in no small measure (적지 않게)

measure (moderate, 적당한) < metiri (재다)

renaissance < renascimento = re + nasci (birth)

scripture < scribere (write), scriptura (writings)

script (written): -ed or -t (과거, 과거분사 = 형용사)

P.1338 – §6 Though the Hellenized Jewish beliefs
were very little influenced by the teachings of the Epicureans, they were
very materially affected by the philosophy of Plato and the self-abnegation
doctrines of the Stoics. The great inroad of Stoicism is exemplified by
the Fourth Book of the Maccabees; the penetration of both Platonic philosophy
and Stoic doctrines is exhibited in the Wisdom of Solomon. The Hellenized
Jews brought to the Hebrew scriptures such an allegorical interpretation
that they found no difficulty in conforming Hebrew theology with their
revered Aristotelian philosophy.

But this all led to disastrous confusion
until these problems were taken in hand by Philo of Alexandria, who proceeded
to harmonize and systemize Greek philosophy and Hebrew theology into a
compact and fairly consistent system of religious belief and practice.
And it was this later teaching of combined Greek philosophy and Hebrew
theology that prevailed in Palestine when Jesus lived and taught, and
which Paul utilized as the foundation on which to build his more advanced
and enlightening cult of Christianity.

Epicurean = follower of Epicurus, 쾌락주의파

쾌락만 추구하자는 철학이 아니라, (기독교를 통하여) 영생만 추구하지 말고, 현세의 즐거움에도 조금 신경을 써야 한다는 생각.

Stoic = philosopher of the school Zeno created. stoa = porch, 이들은 주로 stoa (회랑)에서 금욕주의를 가르쳤다.

scripture < scribere (write), 구약 성서

abnegate < ab (off) + negare (deny) = renounce, reject

self-abnegation, 자기 부정 (내일을 위하여 오늘 먹지 않고 저축, 또는 남을 위하여 자기를 희생하는 것).

conform = con (together) + formare (form), 문제를 일으키지 않고 순응하다

오늘날의 알렉산드리아 도서관

septuagint < septuaginta (LXX = 70), 알렉산드리아의 학자 70인이 번역한 그리스어 구약. This included only the Pentateuch, completed around the mid-3rd century BC. It is said that the remainder was completed around 50 AD. The UB states that Jesus was reading some text from the Prophet Isaiah when growing up in Nazareth.

enlighten < in + lighten = 빛을 비추다, 계몽하다

disaster = dis (ill, bad) + astro (star) = 별자리가 좋지 않은 것, 재난

systemize < system = syn (together) + histanai (stand) = (같이 서도록) 체계화하다

consistent < consistere = stand together (일관성이 있는)

combine = com (together) + bini (two) = 합치다

prevail = pre (before) + valere (have value, power) = 지배하다

advance < abante = ab (from) + ante (in front), 앞으로 나아가다

compact < com (together) + pangere (fasten) = 단단히 붙여놓다

P.1338 – §7 Philo was a great teacher; not since
Moses had there lived a man who exerted such a profound influence on the
ethical and religious thought of the Occidental world. In the matter of
the combination of the better elements in contemporaneous

P.1339 – §0 systems of ethical and religious teachings,
there have been seven outstanding human teachers: Sethard, Moses, Zoroaster,
Lao-tse, Buddha, Philo, and Paul.

exert < ex (out) + serere (bind) = perform (노력을 쏟다)

contemporaneous = con (with) + tempor (time), 당대의

P.1339 – §1 Many, but not all, of Philo’s inconsistencies
resulting from an effort to combine Greek mystical philosophy and Roman
Stoic doctrines with the legalistic theology of the Hebrews, Paul recognized
and wisely eliminated from his pre-Christian basic theology. Philo led
the way for Paul more fully to restore the concept of the Paradise Trinity,
which had long been dormant in Jewish theology. In only one matter did
Paul fail to keep pace with Philo or to transcend the teachings of this
wealthy and educated Jew of Alexandria, and that was the doctrine of the
atonement; Philo taught deliverance from the doctrine of forgiveness only
by the shedding of blood.

He also possibly glimpsed the reality and presence
of the Thought Adjusters more clearly than did Paul. But Paul’s theory
of original sin, the doctrines of hereditary guilt and innate evil and
redemption therefrom, was partially Mithraic in origin, having little
in common with Hebrew theology, Philo’s philosophy, or Jesus’ teachings.
Some phases of Paul’s teachings regarding original sin and the atonement
were original with himself.

Saint Jerome translates the Greek New Testament into Latin (Vulgate).
Vulgate (4 Greek gospels were translated by St Jerome in 384 AD). Later he included most of the Bible. Council of Trent (1545-63) made it official. Clementine edition became official in 1592.

inconsistency = 부조리, 모순

doctrine < doctor (teacher), 신조, 가르침

theology = theo (god) + logos (treatment), 신학

dormant < dormire (sleep), 잠자는, 잠재하는

R: dormitory (bedroom)

keep pace with (~와 발걸음을 맞추다)

forgive < German: vergeben = 용서하다

atone = at one (하나가 되다) = 죄를 지어 떨어져 있었는데, 속죄하고 신과 화해하다.

heredity < hereditas = 유전

innate < in + nasci (be born) = 타고난

P.1339 – §2 The Gospel of John, the last of the narratives
of Jesus’ earth life, was addressed to the Western peoples and presents
its story much in the light of the viewpoint of the later Alexandrian
Christians, who were also disciples of the teachings of Philo.
gospel < G: evangelium = eu (good) + angellein (announce) < angelos (messenger: angel) < good spell (news), 복음

viewpoint = 관점

view < videre (see), 보다

address < ad (near, at) + directiare = set upright (똑바로 놓다), 향하다

Alexandria (John Mark was buried here, later moved to Venice in 828 AD)

P.1339 – §3 At about the time of Christ a strange
reversion of feeling toward the Jews occurred in Alexandria, and from
this former Jewish stronghold there went forth a virulent wave of persecution,
extending even to Rome, from which many thousands were banished. But such
a campaign of misrepresentation was short-lived; very soon the imperial
government fully restored the curtailed liberties of the Jews throughout
the empire.
reverse < re (back) + vertere (turn), 거꾸로 가다

stronghold = strong + hold(강화된 곳) = 요새

banish < bannire (ban), 추방하다

campaign < campus (camp), 평평한 땅, 군대가 야영하다 = 투쟁

restore < re + staurare (다시 세우다, 회복)

curtail < curtus (short), tailler (cut) = 단축하다

virulent < virus (poison) ==> 전염병 (성병)의 인자로 바뀜.

P.1339 – §4 Throughout the whole wide world, no matter
where the Jews found themselves dispersed by commerce or oppression, all
with one accord kept their hearts centered on the holy temple at Jerusalem.
Jewish theology did survive as it was interpreted and practiced at Jerusalem,
notwithstanding that it was several times saved from oblivion by the timely
intervention of certain Babylonian teachers.

P.1339 – §5 As many as two and one-half million of
these dispersed Jews used to come to Jerusalem for the celebration of
their national religious festivals. And no matter what the theologic or
philosophic differences of the Eastern (Babylonian) and the Western (Hellenic)
Jews, they were all agreed on Jerusalem as the center of their worship
and in ever looking forward to the coming of the Messiah.

disperse < dis (apart) + spargere (scatter) 흩뿌리다

oppress = ob (against) + press = 압박하다

all with one accord, 만장 일치로

temple < tempus (open, holy space) = 전당, 성전

celebrate < celebrare (honor, frequent), 명예를 돌리다

oblivion < oblivisci (forget), 망각

festival < festa (feast), 축제




P.1339 – §6 By the times of Jesus the Jews had arrived
at a settled concept of their origin, history, and destiny. They had built
up a rigid wall of separation between themselves and the gentile world;
they looked upon all gentile ways with utter contempt. They worshiped
the letter of the law and indulged a form of self-righteousness based
upon the false pride of descent. They had formed preconceived notions
regarding the promised Messiah, and most of these expectations envisaged
a Messiah who would come as a part of their national and racial history.
To the Hebrews of those days Jewish theology was irrevocably settled,
forever fixed.

by the time ~ 할 때가 되자, times = 시절

settled (안정된, 정착된)

separate = se (apart) + parare (prepare) = 갈라놓다

worship the letter of the law (법조문 자체를 숭상하다)

indulge (in) = indulgere (give free reign to) ~에 빠지다. 만족시키다

preconceived notion (선입견)

irrevocable = ir (not) + revocare (취소하다) = 취소할 수 없는

contempt < contemptus (scorn, 경멸)

P.1339 – §7 The teachings and practices of Jesus
regarding tolerance and kindness ran counter to the long-standing attitude
of the Jews toward other peoples whom

P.1340 – §0 they considered heathen. For generations
the Jews had nourished an attitude toward the outside world which made
it impossible for them to accept the Master’s teachings about the spiritual
brotherhood of man. They were unwilling to share Yahweh on equal terms
with the gentiles and were likewise unwilling to accept as the Son of
God one who taught such new and strange doctrines.

run counter = 반대로 가다

heathen < heath (황야) = 이교도, 야만 (어원 미상)

generate <generare,

generation, 세대

P.1340 – §1 The scribes, the Pharisees, and the priesthood
held the Jews in a terrible bondage of ritualism and legalism, a bondage
far more real than that of the Roman political rule. The Jews of Jesus’
time were not only held in subjugation to the law but were equally bound
by the slavish demands of the traditions, which involved and invaded every
domain of personal and social life. These minute regulations of conduct
pursued and dominated every loyal Jew, and it is not strange that they
promptly rejected one of their number who presumed to ignore their sacred
traditions, and who dared to flout their long-honored regulations of social
conduct. They could hardly regard with favor the teachings of one who
did not hesitate to clash with dogmas which they regarded as having been
ordained by Father Abraham himself. Moses had given them their law and
they would not compromise.
scribe < scribere (write)

terrible < terribilis (terror), 끔찍한

ritual < ritualis, 의식

conduct < con (together) + ducere (lead), bring together (지휘하다)

Il duce (Mussolini, the leader)

flout = 비웃다, 무시하다

bondage < bon (serf) = slavery 구속

subjugate < sub (밑으로) + jugum (yoke, 멍에), 복속시키다

compromise = con (together) + promise (타협, 절충)

minute < minutus (chopped small)

reject = re (back) + jacere (throw) = 거절하다

pursue = pro (forward) + sequi (follow) = 쫓아가다, 추적하다

hesitate < haesitare (단단히 붙어 있다), 주저하다

sacred < sacer (holy), 거룩한

dogma G: 교리, 신조

P.1340 – §2 By the time of the first century after
Christ the spoken interpretation of the law by the recognized teachers,
the scribes, had become a higher authority than the written law itself.
And all this made it easier for certain religious leaders of the Jews
to array the people against the acceptance of a new gospel.
array = ad (to) + redum (ready) = 정렬하다,

interpret = inter (between) + per (traffic) = 설명하다, 통역하다

authority (권한) < auctor (originator),

P.1340 – §3 These circumstances rendered it impossible
for the Jews to fulfill their divine destiny as messengers of the new
gospel of religious freedom and spiritual liberty. They could not break
the fetters of tradition. Jeremiah had told of the “law to be written
in men’s hearts,” Ezekiel had spoken of a “new spirit to live
in man’s soul,” and the Psalmist had prayed that God would “create
a clean heart within and renew a right spirit.” But when the Jewish
religion of good works and slavery to law fell victim to the stagnation
of traditionalistic inertia, the motion of religious evolution passed
westward to the European peoples.
circumstance (환경) < circum (around) + stare (stand)

tradition < trans (across) + dare (give) = tradere (deliver), 건네 주다, 전통

fall victim to = 피해자가 되다.

fulfill = ful + fil (가득 채우다, 만족시키다)

divine < deus (god), 신다운, 신성한

inertia = inactivity < inert = in (not) + art (skill) = unskilled, inactive (관성, 타성)

stagnate < stagnatum (standing water) < stagnare = drip little by little), R: stalactite (동굴에 고드름처럼 내려서 형성된 것)

P.1340 – §4 And so a different people were called
upon to carry an advancing theology to the world, a system of teaching
embodying the philosophy of the Greeks, the law of the Romans, the morality
of the Hebrews, and the gospel of personality sanctity and spiritual liberty
formulated by Paul and based on the teachings of Jesus.
call upon (요청하다)

embody < incorporare = incorporate = in + body, 구현하다, 몸으로 표현하다

formulate < formulare = 형성하다

based on (근거를 둔)

P.1340 – §5 Paul’s cult of Christianity exhibited
its morality as a Jewish birthmark. The Jews viewed history as the providence
of GodYahweh at work. The Greeks brought to the new teaching clearer
concepts of the eternal life. Paul’s doctrines were influenced in theology
and philosophy not only by Jesus’ teachings but also by Plato and Philo.
In ethics he was inspired not only by Christ but also by the Stoics.
exhibit < ex (out) + habere (hold) = 전시하다, 보라고 내놓다

inspire < in (into) + spirare (breathe) = 숨을 불어 넣다, 영감을 불어넣다.


P.1340 – §6 The gospel of Jesus, as it was embodied
in Paul’s cult of Antioch Christianity, became blended with the following

P.1340 – §7 1. The philosophic reasoning of the Greek
proselytes to Judaism, including some of their concepts of the eternal

blend <blanda (Norse) = mix, 혼합하다

proselyte < Greek: proseluthos (stranger, convert), 개종한 사람

conceive < con + capere (take) = 개념을 생각하다

concept = 개념

P.1340 – §8 2. The appealing teachings of the prevailing
mystery cults, especially the Mithraic doctrines of redemption, atonement,
and salvation by the sacrifice made by some god.

P.1340 – §9 3. The sturdy morality of the established
Jewish religion.

salvation < salvare (save), 구원

sacrifice < sacer (sacred) + facere (make) = 희생물로 바치다

P.1341 – §1 The Mediterranean Roman Empire, the Parthian
kingdom, and the adjacent peoples of Jesus’ time all held crude and primitive
ideas regarding the geography of the world, astronomy, health, and disease;
and naturally they were amazed by the new and startling pronouncements
of the carpenter of Nazareth. The ideas of spirit possession, good and
bad, applied not merely to human beings, but every rock and tree was viewed
by many as being spirit possessed. This was an enchanted age, and everybody
believed in miracles as commonplace occurrences.
adjacent = ad (to) + jacere (lie down, throw) = lying near (가까이 놓인)

crude < crudus (raw, rough), 투박한

primitive < primus (first), 원시의, 최초의

pronounce < pro + nuntiare (announce), 발음하다

disease < F: desaise = lack of ease (질병)

possess (occupy) < possidere (차지하다)

enchant < in + cantare (sing) = put under a spell, 노래를 불러 마술에 빠뜨리다



P.1341 – §2 As far as possible, consistent with our
mandate, we have endeavored to utilize and to some extent co-ordinate
the existing records having to do with the life of Jesus on Urantia. Although
we have enjoyed access to the lost record of the Apostle Andrew and have
benefited from the collaboration of a vast host of celestial beings who
were on earth during the times of Michael’s bestowal (notably his now
Personalized Adjuster), it has been our purpose also to make use of the
so-called Gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John.

endeavor < in + F (dever = duty), 노력하다, 의무처럼 애를 쓰다

to some extent = 어느 정도까지

celestial < caelum (heaven), 하늘의

as far as possible (가능한 한도까지)

have to do with ~과 상관 있다

benefit < bene (good) + facere (make) = do good, 이익을 주다


P.1341 – §3 These New Testament records had their
origin in the following circumstances:

P.1341 – §4 1. The Gospel by Mark. John Mark wrote
the earliest (excepting the notes of Andrew), briefest, and most simple
record of Jesus’ life. He presented the Master as a minister, as man among
men. Although Mark was a lad lingering about many of the scenes which
he depicts, his record is in reality the Gospel according to Simon Peter.
He was early associated with Peter; later with Paul. Mark wrote this record
at the instigation of Peter and on the earnest petition of the church
at Rome. Knowing how consistently the Master refused to write out his
teachings when on earth and in the flesh, Mark, like the apostles and
other leading disciples, was hesitant to put them in writing. But Peter
felt the church at Rome required the assistance of such a written narrative,
and Mark consented to undertake its preparation. He made many notes before
Peter died in A.D. 67, and in accordance with the outline approved by
Peter and for the church at Rome, he began his writing soon after Peter’s
death. The Gospel was completed near the end of A.D. 68. Mark wrote entirely
from his own memory and Peter’s memory. The record has since been considerably
changed, numerous passages having been taken out and some later matter
added at the end to replace the latter one fifth of the original Gospel,
which was lost from the first manuscript before it was ever copied. This
record by Mark, in conjunction with Andrew’s and Matthew’s notes, was
the written basis of all subsequent Gospel narratives which sought to
portray the life and teachings of Jesus.

testament (약속) < testari (유언하다) < testis (witness)

instigate = in + stigare (prick) = 선동하다

petition (신에게 구하다 ) < petere (seek) = 상부에 탄원하다

disciple < discere (learn), 배우는 자, 제자

in accordance with ~(명세)에 따라서

consent < con (together) + sentire (feel), 동의하다

complete < com (intensive, ~해 버리다) + plere (fill). 가득 채워 버리다, 완성하다

entire < integrum (whole), integer (whole number)

considerably, 상당히

manuscript = manu (hand) + scribere (write) = 필사본

numerous < numerus (number), 수많은

passage < passus (pace), 통과, 구절

replace = re (back) + place = 빈 자리를 채우다

conjunction < con + iugare (join) = 관련, 접촉

in conjunctioni with ~와 관련하여

narrative (이야기) < narrare (이야기하다)

P.1341 – §5 2. The Gospel of Matthew. The so-called
Gospel according to Matthew is the record of the Master’s life which was
written for the edification of Jewish Christians. The author of this record
constantly seeks to show in Jesus’ life that much which he did was that
“it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophet.” Matthew’s
Gospel portrays Jesus as a son of David, picturing him as showing great
respect for the law and the prophets.
so-called, 이른바, 소위

constant = con (with) + stare (stand) = 항상 그대로 있는

constantly, 변함없이

prophet < G: pro + phetes (speaker), 예언자, 앞을 이야기 해주는 자

P.1341 – §6 The Apostle Matthew did not write this
Gospel. It was written by Isador, one of his disciples, who had as a help
in his work not only Matthew’s personal

P.1342 – §0 remembrance of these events but also
a certain record which the latter had made of the sayings of Jesus directly
after the crucifixion. This record by Matthew was written in Aramaic;
Isador wrote in Greek. There was no intent to deceive in accrediting the
production to Matthew. It was the custom in those days for pupils thus
to honor their teachers.

remembrance 기억

remember < re (again) + memorari (mindful of), 다시 염두에 두다, 기억하다

crucifixion = 십자가 처형

crucify < crux (cross) + figere (fasten, fix) , 십자가에 못박다

accredit = give credit to

deceive (속이다) < decipere (catch, ensnare) 옭아매다

pupil = 생도 < pupus (boy) , pupa (girl), puer (child), originally orphan child, later student.

P.1342 – §1 Matthew’s original record was edited
and added to in A.D. 40 just before he left Jerusalem to engage in evangelistic
preaching. It was a private record, the last copy having been destroyed
in the burning of a Syrian monastery in A.D. 416.
private < L: privare (separate)

monastery < G: monos (alone), 수도원, 혼자 있는 곳

P.1342 – §2 Isador escaped from Jerusalem in A.D.
70 after the investment of the city by the armies of Titus, taking with
him to Pella a copy of Matthew’s notes. In the year 71, while living at
Pella, Isador wrote the Gospel according to Matthew. He also had with
him the first four fifths of Mark’s narrative.
investment, 투입, 투자

invest < in + vestis (clothing), 권한을 부여하다 = 투입

P.1342 – §3 3. The Gospel by Luke. Luke, the physician
of Antioch in Pisidia, was a gentile convert of Paul, and he wrote quite
a different story of the Master’s life. He began to follow Paul and learn
of the life and teachings of Jesus in A.D. 47. Luke preserves much of
the “grace of the Lord Jesus Christ” in his record as he gathered
up these facts from Paul and others. Luke presents the Master as “the
friend of publicans and sinners.” He did not formulate his many notes
into the Gospel until after Paul’s death. Luke wrote in the year 82 in
Achaia. He planned three books dealing with the history of Christ and
Christianity but died in A.D. 90 just before he finished the second of
these works, the “Acts of the Apostles.”

preserve = pre(before) + servare (keep) = 미리 보존하다

publican (세리) < publicum (조세 수입)

P.1342 – §4 As material for the compilation of his
Gospel, Luke first depended upon the story of Jesus’ life as Paul had
related it to him. Luke’s Gospel is, therefore, in some ways the Gospel
according to Paul. But Luke had other sources of information. He not only
interviewed scores of eyewitnesses to the numerous episodes of Jesus’
life which he records, but he also had with him a copy of Mark’s Gospel,
that is, the first four fifths, Isador’s narrative, and a brief record
made in the year A.D. 78 at Antioch by a believer named Cedes. Luke also
had a mutilated and much-edited copy of some notes purported to have been
made by the Apostle Andrew.
compile < com + pilare (plunder, rob) = 수집하다

mutilate < mutilare (절단하다)

episode < G: epi (in addition) + hodos (way), 삽화 같은 사건

P.1342 – §5 4. The Gospel of John. The Gospel according
to John relates much of Jesus’ work in Judea and around Jerusalem which
is not contained in the other records. This is the so-called Gospel according
to John the son of Zebedee, and though John did not write it, he did inspire
it. Since its first writing it has several times been edited to make it
appear to have been written by John himself. When this record was made,
John had the other Gospels, and he saw that much had been omitted; accordingly,
in the year A.D. 101 he encouraged his associate, Nathan, a Greek Jew
from Caesarea, to begin the writing. John supplied his material from memory
and by reference to the three records already in existence. He had no
written records of his own. The Epistle known as “First John”
was written by John himself as a covering letter for the work which Nathan
executed under his direction.

omit = ob (down) + mittere (let go, send) = 빠뜨리다

epistle = epi (in addition) +stellein (send) = 보내는 것, 편지


P.1342 – §6 All these writers presented honest pictures
of Jesus as they saw, remembered, or had learned of him, and as their
concepts of these distant events were affected by their subsequent espousal
of Paul’s theology of Christianity. And these records, imperfect as they
are, have been sufficient to change the course of the history of Urantia
for almost two thousand years.
espouse < sponsare (betroth), 후원하다, 배우자로 받아들이다

sufficient < sub (up to) + facere (supply as a substitute, 충분한

P.1343 – §1 [Acknowledgment: In carrying out my
commission to restate the teachings and retell the doings of Jesus of
Nazareth, I have drawn freely upon all sources of record and planetary
information. My ruling motive has been to prepare a record which will
not only be enlightening to the generation of men now living, but which
may also be helpful to all future generations. From the vast store of
information made available to me, I have chosen that which is best suited
to the accomplishment of this purpose. As far as possible I have derived
my information from purely human sources. Only when such sources failed,
have I resorted to those records which are superhuman. When ideas and
concepts of Jesus’ life and teachings have been acceptably expressed by
a human mind, I invariably gave preference to such apparently human thought
patterns. Although I have sought to adjust the verbal expression the better
to conform to our concept of the real meaning and the true import of the
Master’s life and teachings, as far as possible, I have adhered to the
actual human concept and thought pattern in all my narratives. I well
know that those concepts which have had origin in the human mind will
prove more acceptable and helpful to all other human minds. When unable
to find the necessary concepts in the human records or in human expressions,
I have next resorted to the memory resources of my own order of earth
creatures, the midwayers. And when that secondary source of information
proved inadequate, I have unhesitatingly resorted to the superplanetary
sources of information.
accomplish < ad (to) + complere (complete), 성취하다

adhere < ad (to, ~에) + haerere (stick) ~에 달라붙다

resort < re (again) + sortir (go out), 의존하다

sortie (비행기 출격)

adequate < ad (to) + aequus (equal), 동등한 수준에 있다, 적당하다

unhesitatingly, 주저하지 않고

hesitate < haerere (stick), 끈적끈적해서 잘 움직이지 않다, 주저하다

P.1343 – §2 The memoranda which I have collected,
and from which I have prepared this narrative of the life and teachings
of Jesusaside from the memory of the record of the Apostle Andrewembrace
thought gems and superior concepts of Jesus’ teachings assembled from
more than two thousand human beings who have lived on earth from the days
of Jesus down to the time of the inditing of these revelations, more correctly
restatements. The revelatory permission has been utilized only when the
human record and human concepts failed to supply an adequate thought pattern.
My revelatory commission forbade me to resort to extrahuman sources of
either information or expression until such a time as I could testify
that I had failed in my efforts to find the required conceptual expression
in purely human sources.

memoranda (plural of memorandum) = something to remember < memorare (기억하다)

assemble < ad + simul (together) = 수집하다


P.1343 – §3 While I, with the collaboration of my
eleven associate fellow midwayers and under the supervision of the Melchizedek
of record, have portrayed this narrative in accordance with my concept
of its effective arrangement and in response to my choice of immediate
expression, nevertheless, the majority of the ideas and even some of the
effective expressions which I have thus utilized had their origin in the
minds of the men of many races who have lived on earth during the intervening
generations, right on down to those who are still alive at the time of
this undertaking. In many ways I have served more as a collector and editor
than as an original narrator. I have unhesitatingly appropriated those
ideas and concepts, preferably human, which would enable me to create
the most effective portraiture of Jesus’ life, and which would qualify
me to restate his matchless teachings in the most strikingly helpful and
universally uplifting phraseology. In behalf of the Brotherhood of the
United Midwayers of Urantia, I most gratefully acknowledge our indebtedness
to all sources of record and concept which have been hereinafter utilized
in the further elaboration of our restatement of Jesus’ life on earth.]

collaborate, 같이 수고하다, 공동으로 일하다

intervene = inter (between) + venire (go) = 사이에 끼다

majority < majoritas (다수)

arrange < ad (at) rangier (put in order) = 주선하다, 조직하다, 정리하다

appropriate (동사) = ad + proprius (own) = 사용하다, 책정하다, 돌려쓰다. (국회에서) 지출을 인정하다.

prefer = pre (before) + ferre (carry) = 선호하다, 먼저 가져가다

acknowledge = 인정하다

indebted = in + debt = 빚을 졌다

restate = re + state (말하다) = 다시 진술하다


behalf = be + half(side). on his behalf (그의 이익을 위하여, 그의 이름으로, 그를 대신하여)

hereinafter = further (in this document)