P.1355 – §1 Owing to the uncertainties and anxieties of their sojourn in Bethlehem, Mary did not wean the babe until they had arrived safely in Alexandria, where the family was able to settle down to a normal life. They lived with kinsfolk, and Joseph was well able to support his family as he secured work shortly after their arrival. He was employed as a carpenter for several months and then elevated to the position of foreman of a large group of workmen employed on one of the public buildings then in process of construction. This new experience gave him the idea of becoming a contractor and builder after their return to Nazareth.
anxiety < anxius (anxious)
settle down = 정착하다
kinfolk = 친척, kinsfolk = 친척들 (복수)
secure < se (without) + cura (care) = 걱정 없는, 안전한, 확보하다 (동사)
several < separalis (따로된) = greater than 2 but not many
foreman < German: Vormann = 십장 (선두의 일꾼?)
public < publicus (of the people) < populus (people), 공공의
P.1355 – §2 All through these early years of Jesus’ helpless infancy, Mary maintained one long and constant vigil lest anything befall her child which might jeopardize his welfare or in any way interfere with his future mission on earth; no mother was ever more devoted to her child. In the home where Jesus chanced to be there were two other children about his age, and among the near neighbors there were six others whose ages were sufficiently near his own to make them acceptable play-fellows. At first Mary was disposed to keep Jesus close by her side. She feared something might happen to him if he were allowed to play in the garden with the other children, but Joseph, with the assistance of his kinsfolk, was able to convince her that such a course would deprive Jesus of the helpful experience of learning how to adjust himself to children of his own age.
And Mary, realizing that such a program of undue sheltering and unusual protection might tend to make him self-conscious and somewhat self-centered, finally gave assent to the plan of permitting the child of promise to grow up just like any other child; and though she was obedient to this decision, she made it her business always to be on watch while the little folks were at play about the house or in the garden. Only an affectionate mother can know the burden that Mary carried in her heart for the safety of her son during these years of his infancy and early childhood.
infant < in (not) + fant (speaking) = unable to speak (어린 아기)
vigil < (L: awake), 깨어서 망 보기
sufficient < suffice < sub (under) + facere (make) = put under = (이 대신에 잇몸으로 충분하다)
dispose < dis (apart) + ponere (place), 처분하다, disposed (형) ~할 마음이 있는, 경향이 있는
interfere < inter (between) + ferire (strike) = strike each other, 간섭하다
jeopardy < jeu (game) + parti (divided) = game with even chances (win or lose, hence uncertainty)
convince < con (with) + vincere (conquer) = 확신시키다, 논리로 이기다.
deprive < de (away) + privare (개인 소유권을 없애다 = (공직 따위를) 빼앗다
affectionate < affectionatus (devoted) < afficere (influence), 치우친, beloved
P.1355 – §3 Throughout the two years of their sojourn at Alexandria, Jesus enjoyed good health and continued to grow normally. Aside from a few friends and relatives no one was told about Jesus’ being a "child of promise." One of Joseph’s relatives revealed this to a few friends in Memphis, descendants of the distant Ikhnaton, and they, with a small group of Alexandrian believers, assembled at the palatial home of Joseph’s relative-benefactor a short time before the return to Palestine to wish the Nazareth family well and to pay their respects to the child.
On this occasion the assembled friends presented Jesus with a complete copy of the Greek translation of the Hebrew scriptures. But this copy of the Jewish sacred writings was not placed in Joseph’s hands until both he and Mary had finally declined the invitation of their Memphis and Alexandrian friends to remain in Egypt. These believers insisted that the child of destiny would be able to exert a far greater world influence as a resident of Alexandria than of any designated place in Palestine.
P.1356 – §0 These persuasions delayed their departure for Palestine for some time after they received the news of Herod’s death.
assemble < ad (toward) + simulare (make similar) = gather together (비슷하게 만들다 = 비슷한 것들을 집합하다)
decline < de (down) + clinare (bend) = turn aside, 거절하다
palace < palatium < royal house in Palatine hill
designate < de (out) + signare (mark) = 지명하다 (권한을 아직 받지 않은 상태)
septuagint (70) = 70인이 번역, Greek translation of the Hebrew bible.
P.1356 – §1 Joseph and Mary finally took leave of
Alexandria on a boat belonging to their friend Ezraeon, bound for Joppa,
arriving at that port late in August of the year 4 B.C. They went directly
to Bethlehem, where they spent the entire month of September in counsel
with their friends and relatives concerning whether they should remain
there or return to Nazareth.
persuade < per (through) + suadere (urge, advise) = 설득하다
dissuade < dis (against) +suadere = 하지 말라고 말리다
P.1356 – §2 Mary had never fully given up the idea that Jesus ought to grow up in Bethlehem, the City of David. Joseph did not really believe that their son was to become a kingly deliverer of Israel. Besides, he knew that he himself was not really a descendant of David; that his being reckoned among the offspring of David was due to the adoption of one of his ancestors into the Davidic line of descent. Mary, of course, thought the City of David the most appropriate place in which the new candidate for David’s throne could be reared, but Joseph preferred to take chances with Herod Antipas rather than with his brother Archelaus.
He entertained great fears for the child’s safety in Bethlehem or in any other city in Judea, and surmised that Archelaus would be more likely to pursue the menacing policies of his father, Herod, than would Antipas in Galilee. And besides all these reasons, Joseph was outspoken in his preference for Galilee as a better place in which to rear and educate the child, but it required three weeks to overcome Mary’s objections.
give up = 포기하다
deliver < de(away) + liberare (set free) = 해방시키다. 구원하다.
descendant = 후손
reckon < German: rechnen (count) = 계산하다
prefer < pre (before) + ferre (carry) = 선호하다, 더 좋아하다
candidate < candidus (white) < candidatus (white robed) = 아직 당선되지 않아 흰 옷을 입은
entertain fears = 두려움을 품다
surmise < super (over) + mittere (send) = gather, guess (추측하다)
take chances = 위험을 택하다 (운이 좋기를 바라며)
menace < minax (threatening), 위협
object < ob (in the way of, ~의 길에) + jacere (throw, 던지다) = 반대하다
rear = raise = 기르다
P.1356 – §3 By the first of October Joseph had convinced Mary and all their friends that it was best for them to return to Nazareth. Accordingly, early in October, 4 B.C., they departed from Bethlehem for Nazareth, going by way of Lydda and Scythopolis. They started out early one Sunday morning, Mary and the child riding on their newly acquired beast of burden, while Joseph and five accompanying kinsmen proceeded on foot; Joseph’s relatives refused to permit them to make the trip to Nazareth alone. They feared to go to Galilee by Jerusalem and the Jordan valley, and the western routes were not altogether safe for two lone travelers with a child of tender years.
October < octo (eight). 율리우스 케사르가 July (율리우스, 7월)와 August (8월) 중간에 끼워 넣어, 8째 달이 10월이 되었다.
beast of burden = 짐을 싯는 짐승, 당나귀 등.
kinsman = 친족인 남자
on foot = 걸어서
refuse < recusare = 거절하다
tender < tener (delicate),
1. BACK IN NAZARETH – P.1356
P.1356 – §4 On the fourth day of the journey the
party reached its destination in safety. They arrived unannounced at the
Nazareth home, which had been occupied for more than three years by one
of Joseph’s married brothers, who was indeed surprised to see them; so
quietly had they gone about their business that neither the family of
Joseph nor that of Mary knew they had even left Alexandria. The next day
Joseph’s brother moved his family, and Mary, for the first time since
Jesus’ birth, settled down with her little family to enjoy life in their
own home. In less than a week Joseph secured work as a carpenter, and
they were supremely happy.
journey < diurnum (daily portion), a day’s travel, a day’s work
arrive < ad (to) + ripa (shore), reach the shore, 도착하다
river < ripa (shore), 둑을 따라 가는 것, 강.
announce < nuntiare (선언하다)
capenter < carpentum (wagon), related to car. wagon을 만드는 사람
secure < se (without) + cura (care), 걱정 없는, 안전한, (동사) 확보하다.
P.1356 – §5 Jesus was about three years and two months old at the time of their return to Nazareth. He had stood all these travels very well and was in excellent health and full of childish glee and excitement at having premises of his own to run about in and to enjoy. But he greatly missed the association of his Alexandrian playmates.
excel < ex (out) + cellere (rise high) = surpass, 뛰어넘다
premises (집과 집터, 복수), 여기서는 뛰어놀 마당.
< prae + mittere (send) = 미리 정해 놓다.
glee (German: entertainment)
|P.1356 – §6 On the way to Nazareth Joseph had persuaded Mary that it would be unwise to spread the word among their Galilean friends and relatives that Jesus was a child of promise. They agreed to refrain from all mention of these matters to anyone. And they were both very faithful in keeping this promise.||refrain < re + frenare (bridle) = 고삐를 쥐다, 자제하다|
|P.1357 – §1 Jesus’ entire fourth year was a period of normal physical development and of unusual mental activity. Meantime he had formed a very close attachment for a neighbor boy about his own age named Jacob. Jesus and Jacob were always happy in their play, and they grew up to be great friends and loyal companions.||attach = (F: atachier) seize by legal authority, 차압하다, 붙이다|
|P.1357 – §2 The next important event in the life
of this Nazareth family was the birth of the second child, James, in the
early morning hours of April 2, 3 B.C. Jesus was thrilled by the thought
of having a baby brother, and he would stand around by the hour just to
observe the baby’s early activities.
thrill < through = penetrate, pierce (뻥) 뚤리다, 흥분에 빠지다
by the hour, (i) paid by the hour = 시간당 얼마큼 돈을 받다
(ii) continuously, all the time = 계속하여
|P.1357 – §3 It was midsummer of this same year that Joseph built a small workshop close to the village spring and near the caravan tarrying lot. After this he did very little carpenter work by the day. He had as associates two of his brothers and several other mechanics, whom he sent out to work while he remained at the shop making yokes and plows and doing other woodwork. He also did some work in leather and with rope and canvas. And Jesus, as he grew up, when not at school, spent his time about equally between helping his mother with home duties and watching his father work at the shop, meanwhile listening to the conversation and gossip of the caravan conductors and passengers from the four corners of the earth.||
village < villa (country house), 마을
remain < re + manere (stay) = 머무르다
converse < con (with) + vertere (turn) < conversari (동무가 되다) = 이야기하다
gossip < old E: god +sibb (relative = related to one in God, 주 안에서 관계된 자), (그런 사람들이) 험담하다
|P.1357 – §4 In July of this year, one month before Jesus was four years old, an outbreak of malignant intestinal trouble spread over all Nazareth from contact with the caravan travelers. Mary became so alarmed by the danger of Jesus being exposed to this epidemic of disease that she bundled up both her children and fled to the country home of her brother, several miles south of Nazareth on the Megiddo road near Sarid. They did not return to Nazareth for more than two months; Jesus greatly enjoyed this, his first experience on a farm.||
malignant < malignare = mal (bad) + gignere (gene = beget) 해로운
expose < expositus (put out), 내놓다, 드러내다.
disease < F: des + aise = 편안치 않은 것, 질병
epidemic < epi (among) + demos (people), 사람들에게 퍼지는 전염병
flee < German: fliehen, 도망가다. < R: fly
2. THE FIFTH YEAR (2 B.C.) – P.1357
P.1357 – §5 In something more than a year after the return to Nazareth the boy Jesus arrived at the age of his first personal and wholehearted moral decision; and there came to abide with him a Thought Adjuster, a divine gift of the Paradise Father, which had aforetime served with Machiventa Melchizedek, thus gaining the experience of functioning in connection with the incarnation of a supermortal being living in the likeness of mortal flesh. This event occurred on February 11, 2 B.C. Jesus was no more aware of the coming of the divine Monitor than are the millions upon millions of other children who, before and since that day, have likewise received these Thought Adjusters to indwell their minds and work for the ultimate spiritualization of these minds and the eternal survival of their evolving immortal souls.
wholehearted = 진심에서 우러난
abide (OE) = 머무르다, 살다
aforetime = 이전에,
indwell = in + dwell (속에 거하다), 깃들다
ultimate < ultimare (come to an end), 궁극의
evolve < ex (out of) + volvere (roll) = 진화하다
immortal = in (not) + mortalis (death) = 不死의
survive = super (over) + vivere (live) = outlive
|P.1357 – §6 On this day in February the direct and
personal supervision of the Universe Rulers, as it was related to the
integrity of the childlike incarnation of Michael, terminated. From that
time on throughout the human unfolding of the incarnation, the guardianship
of Jesus was destined to rest in the keeping of this indwelling Adjuster
and the associated seraphic guardians, supplemented from time to time
by the ministry of midway creatures assigned for the performance of certain
definite duties in accordance with the instruction of their planetary
supervise = super (over) + videre (see) = 감독하다
integerity < integer (intact) = 온전성
seraphic < seraphim, 천사의
P.1357 – §7 Jesus was five years old in August of
this year, and we will, therefore, refer to this as his fifth (calendar)
year of life. In this year, 2 B.C., a little more than one month before
his fifth birthday anniversary, Jesus was made very happy by the coming
of his sister Miriam, who was born on the night of July 11. During
P.1358 – §0 the evening of the following day Jesus
had a long talk with his father concerning the manner in which various
groups of living things are born into the world as separate individuals.
The most valuable part of Jesus’ early education was secured from his
parents in answer to his thoughtful and searching inquiries. Joseph never
failed to do his full duty in taking pains and spending time answering
the boy’s numerous questions. From the time Jesus was five years old until
he was ten, he was one continuous question mark. While Joseph and Mary
could not always answer his questions, they never failed fully to discuss
his inquiries and in every other possible way to assist him in his efforts
to reach a satisfactory solution of the problem which his alert mind had
secure < se (without) + cura (care), 걱정없이, 단단히 확보하다.
inquire < quarere (seek) = 물어보다
satisfy < satis(enough) +facere (make) = 만족시키다
numerous < numerus (number), 수많은
solve < solvere (loosen, dissove) = 풀다,
solution = 해결책
suggest < sub (from below) + gerere (bring), 제안하다
|P.1358 – §1 Since returning to Nazareth, theirs had
been a busy household, and Joseph had been unusually occupied building
his new shop and getting his business started again. So fully was he occupied
that he had found no time to build a cradle for James, but this was corrected
long before Miriam came, so that she had a very comfortable crib in which
to nestle while the family admired her. And the child Jesus heartily entered
into all these natural and normal home experiences. He greatly enjoyed
his little brother and his baby sister and was of great help to Mary in
occupy < occupare (seize), 차지하다
correct < cor (together) + regere (guide) = made straight, 고치다
admire < ad (at) + mirari (wonder) = 찬미하다, ~에 놀라다
system < syn (with/together) +histanai (make something stand), 체계
P.1358 – §2 There were few homes in the gentile world of those days that could give a child a better intellectual, moral, and religious training than the Jewish homes of Galilee. These Jews had a systematic program for rearing and educating their children. They divided a child’s life into seven stages:
systematic = 체계적
systemic = (medicine, biology) 체계의
nestle < OE: nest = (보금자리에) 자리잡다
P.1358 – §3 1. The newborn child, the first to the
P.1358 – §4 2. The suckling child.
P.1358 – §5 3. The weaned child.
P.1358 – §6 4. The period of dependence on the mother,
lasting up to the end of the fifth year.
P.1358 – §7 5. The beginning independence of the
child and, with sons, the father assuming responsibility for their education.
P.1358 – §8 6. The adolescent youths and maidens.
P.1358 – §9 7. The young men and the young women.
wean = 젖을 떼다
depend < de (down) + pendere (hang) = 의존하다
adolescent < adolescere (grow up), al- (grow, old)
|P.1358 – §10 It was the custom of the Galilean Jews
for the mother to bear the responsibility for a child’s training until
the fifth birthday, and then, if the child were a boy, to hold the father
responsible for the lad’s education from that time on. This year, therefore,
Jesus entered upon the fifth stage of a Galilean Jewish child’s career,
and accordingly on August 21, 2 B.C., Mary formally turned him over to
Joseph for further instruction.
bear responsibility = 책임을 지다
turn something over to somebody = 누구에게 ~의 책임을 지라고 넘기다
|P.1358 – §11 Though Joseph was now assuming the direct
responsibility for Jesus’ intellectual and religious education, his mother
still interested herself in his home training. She taught him to know
and care for the vines and flowers growing about the garden walls which
completely surrounded the home plot. She also provided on the roof of
the house (the summer bedroom) shallow boxes of sand in which Jesus worked
out maps and did much of his early practice at writing Aramaic, Greek,
and later on, Hebrew, for in time he learned to read, write, and speak,
fluently, all three languages.
surround < super (over) + undare (flow) = 둘러싸다, R: round
work out = 해결하다, work-out: 운동
P.1358 – §12 Jesus appeared to be a well-nigh perfect
child physically and continued to make normal progress mentally and emotionally.
He experienced a mild digestive upset, his first minor illness, in the
latter part of this, his fifth (calendar) year.
P.1359 – §1 Though Joseph and Mary often talked about the future of their eldest child, had you been there, you would only have observed the growing up of a normal, healthy, carefree, but exceedingly inquisitive child of that time and place.
well-nigh = 거의 (문어체)
digest < di (apart) + gerere (carry) = dissolve, 소화하다, 정리하다
carefree = care (걱정) + free = 걱정 없는
3. EVENTS OF THE SIXTH YEAR (1 B.C.) – P.1359
P.1359 – §2 Already, with his mother’s help, Jesus had mastered the Galilean dialect of the Aramaic tongue; and now his father began teaching him Greek. Mary spoke little Greek, but Joseph was a fluent speaker of both Aramaic and Greek. The textbook for the study of the Greek language was the copy of the Hebrew scriptures–a complete version of the law and the prophets, including the Psalms–which had been presented to them on leaving Egypt.
There were only two complete copies of the Scriptures in Greek in all Nazareth, and the possession of one of them by the carpenter’s family made Joseph’s home a much-sought place and enabled Jesus, as he grew up, to meet an almost endless procession of earnest students and sincere truth seekers. Before this year ended, Jesus had assumed custody of this priceless manuscript, having been told on his sixth birthday that the sacred book had been presented to him by Alexandrian friends and relatives. And in a very short time he could read it readily.
seek = 구하다
priceless = 가격을 매길 수 없는
complete < com + plere (fill, add), 완벽한
P.1359 – §3 The first great shock of Jesus’ young life occurred when he was not quite six years old. It had seemed to the lad that his father–at least his father and mother together–knew everything. Imagine, therefore, the surprise of this inquiring child, when he asked his father the cause of a mild earthquake which had just occurred, to hear Joseph say, "My son, I really do not know." Thus began that long and disconcerting disillusionment in the course of which Jesus found out that his earthly parents were not all-wise and all-knowing.
disconcert = dis (opposite) + concertare (with, certare, 함께 애쓰다) = 혼란에 빠뜨리다.
disillusion = dis (opposite) + illusion = 환상에서 깨어나다
P.1359 – §4 Joseph’s first thought was to tell Jesus that the earthquake had been caused by God, but a moment’s reflection admonished him that such an answer would immediately be provocative of further and still more embarrassing inquiries. Even at an early age it was very difficult to answer Jesus’ questions about physical or social phenomena by thoughtlessly telling him that either God or the devil was responsible. In harmony with the prevailing belief of the Jewish people, Jesus was long willing to accept the doctrine of good spirits and evil spirits as the possible explanation of mental and spiritual phenomena, but he very early became doubtful that such unseen influences were responsible for the physical happenings of the natural world.
provoke < pro (forth) + vocare (call), 도발하다
devil < G: diabolos < dia (across) +ballein (throw), slander
남의 길에 무엇을 방해하려고 던지는 자.
harmony < G: harmos (joint) < harmonia (joining)
P.1359 – §5 Before Jesus was six years of age, in the early summer of 1 B.C., Zacharias and Elizabeth and their son John came to visit the Nazareth family. Jesus and John had a happy time during this, their first visit within their memories. Although the visitors could remain only a few days, the parents talked over many things, including the future plans for their sons. While they were thus engaged, the lads played with blocks in the sand on top of the house and in many other ways enjoyed themselves in true boyish fashion.
P.1359 – §6 Having met John, who came from near Jerusalem, Jesus began to evince an unusual interest in the history of Israel and to inquire in great detail as to the meaning of the Sabbath rites, the synagogue sermons, and the recurring feasts of commemoration. His father explained to him the meaning of all these seasons. The first was the midwinter festive illumination, lasting eight days,
evince < evincere (overcome) = reveal presence of, 겉에 보이게 나타내다.
commemorate < com + memorare (relate), 기념하다
sermon < sermo (talk, discourse) 강연
P.1360 – §0 starting out with one candle the first night and adding one each successive night; this commemorated the dedication of the temple after the restoration of the Mosaic services by Judas Maccabee. Next came the early springtime celebration of Purim, the feast of Esther and Israel’s deliverance through her.
Then followed the solemn Passover, which the adults celebrated in Jerusalem whenever possible, while at home the children would remember that no leavened bread was to be eaten for the whole week. Later came the feast of the first-fruits, the harvest ingathering; and last, the most solemn of all, the feast of the new year, the day of atonement. While some of these celebrations and observances were difficult for Jesus’ young mind to understand, he pondered them seriously and then entered fully into the joy of the feast of tabernacles, the annual vacation season of the whole Jewish people, the time when they camped out in leafy booths and gave themselves up to mirth and pleasure.
tabernacle < terberna (hut, tavern) < tabernaculum = tent
mirth < E: merry
P.1360 – §1 During this year Joseph and Mary had trouble with Jesus about his prayers. He insisted on talking to his heavenly Father much as he would talk to Joseph, his earthly father. This departure from the more solemn and reverent modes of communication with Deity was a bit disconcerting to his parents, especially to his mother, but there was no persuading him to change; he would say his prayers just as he had been taught, after which he insisted on having "just a little talk with my Father in heaven."
solumn < sollemnis (annual, ceremonial) 엄숙한,
disconcert = dis (reverse) + concert (bring together), 혼란에 빠지게 하다.
persuade = per (through) + suadere (advise), 설득
|P.1360 – §2 In June of this year Joseph turned
the shop in Nazareth over to his brothers and formally entered upon his
work as a builder. Before the year was over, the family income had more
than trebled. Never again, until after Joseph’s death, did the Nazareth
family feel the pinch of poverty. The family grew larger and larger, and
they spent much money on extra education and travel, but always Joseph’s
increasing income kept pace with the growing expenses.
treble < triple, 3배가 되다.
pinch = 꼬집다. 아픔
keep pace with 보조를 맞추다
P.1360 – §3 The next few years Joseph did considerable work at Cana, Bethlehem (of Galilee), Magdala, Nain, Sepphoris, Capernaum, and Endor, as well as much building in and near Nazareth. As James grew up to be old enough to help his mother with the housework and care of the younger children, Jesus made frequent trips away from home with his father to these surrounding towns and villages. Jesus was a keen observer and gained much practical knowledge from these trips away from home; he was assiduously storing up knowledge regarding man and the way he lived on earth.
surround < super (over) + undare (flow), 둘러싸다. later associated with round.
frequent, 자주 가다 (미상)
observe < ob (in front of) + sevare (watch), 관찰하다
assiduous < ad (to) + sedere (sit down) = 계속 자리에 있다. 부지런한
P.1360 – §4 This year Jesus made great progress in adjusting his strong feelings and vigorous impulses to the demands of family co-operation and home discipline. Mary was a loving mother but a fairly strict disciplinarian. In many ways, however, Joseph exerted the greater control over Jesus as it was his practice to sit down with the boy and fully explain the real and underlying reasons for the necessity of disciplinary curtailment of personal desires in deference to the welfare and tranquillity of the entire family. When the situation had been explained to Jesus, he was always intelligently and willingly co-operative with parental wishes and family regulations.
vigorous < vigere (be lively)
curtail < curtus (cut), 짧게 자르다
deference (존중), in deference to ~을 존중하여, 양보하여
P.1360 – §5 Much of his spare time–when his mother did not require his help about the house–was spent studying the flowers and plants by day and the stars by night. He evinced a troublesome penchant for lying on his back and gazing wonderingly up into the starry heavens long after his usual bedtime in this well-ordered Nazareth household.
spare < G: sparen , 아끼다, 목숨을 살려주다
evince < ex (out) + vincere (overcome), prove, (감추지 못하고) 겉으로 나타내다.
4. THE SEVENTH YEAR (A.D. 1) – P.1361
P.1361 – §1 This was, indeed, an eventful year in
Jesus’ life. Early in January a great snowstorm occurred in Galilee. Snow
fell two feet deep, the heaviest snowfall Jesus saw during his lifetime
and one of the deepest at Nazareth in a hundred years.
|occur < ob (toward) + currere (run), 사건이 일어나다.|
|P.1361 – §2 The play life of Jewish children in the
times of Jesus was rather circumscribed; all too often the children played
at the more serious things they observed their elders doing. They played
much at weddings and funerals, ceremonies which they so frequently saw
and which were so spectacular. They danced and sang but had few organized
games, such as children of later days so much enjoy.
circumscribe < circum + scribe (둘레에 선을 긋다, 제한하다)
funeral < funer-(죽음), 장례식
spectacle < specere (look),
spectacular = 볼 만한
P.1361 – §3 Jesus, in company with a neighbor boy
and later his brother James, delighted to play in the far corner of the
family carpenter shop, where they had great fun with the shavings and
the blocks of wood. It was always difficult for Jesus to comprehend the
harm of certain sorts of play which were forbidden on the Sabbath, but
he never failed to conform to his parents’ wishes. He had a capacity for
humor and play which was afforded little opportunity for expression in
the environment of his day and generation, but up to the age of fourteen
he was cheerful and lighthearted most of the time.
in company with ~을 동반하여
shave < G: schaben (면도하다)
shaving (얇게 저며진 대패 밥)
comprehend < com (together) + prehendere (grasp), understand
environment < en (in) + viron (circle), virer (turn) = 환경
lighthearted = 마음 편한, 근심 없는
P.1361 – §4 Mary maintained a dovecote on top of the animal house adjoining the home, and they used the profits from the sale of doves as a special charity fund, which Jesus administered after he deducted the tithe and turned it over to the officer of the synagogue.
P.1361 – §5 The only real accident Jesus had up to
this time was a fall down the back-yard stone stairs which led up to the
canvas-roofed bedroom. It happened during an unexpected July sandstorm
from the east. The hot winds, carrying blasts of fine sand, usually blew
during the rainy season, especially in March and April. It was extraordinary
to have such a storm in July. When the storm came up, Jesus was on the
housetop playing, as was his habit, for during much of the dry season
this was his accustomed playroom. He was blinded by the sand when descending
the stairs and fell. After this accident Joseph built a balustrade up
both sides of the stairway.
dovecote = dove + cote (cottage) = 비둘기 장
administer, 관리하다, 집행하다, 운영하다.
deduct < de (away) + ducere (lead) = 빼다
avoid < ex (out) +vacare (be empty), vacant, 피하다, 자리를 비우다
P.1361 – §6 There was no way in which this accident
could have been prevented. It was not chargeable to neglect by the midway
temporal guardians, one primary and one secondary midwayer having been
assigned to the watchcare of the lad; neither was it chargeable to the
guardian seraphim. It simply could not have been avoided. But this slight
accident, occurring while Joseph was absent in Endor, caused such great
anxiety to develop in Mary’s mind that she unwisely tried to keep Jesus
very close to her side for some months.
|prevent < pre (before) + venire (come), 방지하다|
|P.1361 – §7 Material accidents, commonplace occurrences
of a physical nature, are not arbitrarily interfered with by celestial
personalities. Under ordinary circumstances only midway creatures can
intervene in material conditions to safeguard the persons of men and women
of destiny, and even in special situations these beings can so act only
in obedience to the specific mandates of their superiors.
interfere < inter (between) +ferire (knock), 간섭하다
intervene < inter + venire (come), 간섭하다
circumstance < circum + stare (stand), 상황
P.1361 – §8 And this was but one of a number of such minor accidents which subsequently befell this inquisitive and adventurous youth. If you envisage the average childhood and youth of an aggressive boy, you will have a fairly good idea of the youthful career of Jesus, and you will be able to imagine just about how much anxiety he caused his parents, particularly his mother.
envisage < en (in) + videre (see), 들여다 보다, 상상하다
P.1362 – §1 The fourth member of the Nazareth family, Joseph, was born Wednesday morning, March 16, A.D. 1.
| According to the
AD 1 calendar (actual calendar used; in the English calendar, the switchover to Gregorian calendar occured in September 1752)
5. SCHOOL DAYS IN NAZARETH – P.1362
P.1362 – §2 Jesus was now seven years old, the age
when Jewish children were supposed to begin their formal education in
the synagogue schools. Accordingly, in August of this year he entered
upon his eventful school life at Nazareth. Already this lad was a fluent
reader, writer, and speaker of two languages, Aramaic and Greek. He was
now to acquaint himself with the task of learning to read, write, and
speak the Hebrew language. And he was truly eager for the new school life
which was ahead of him.
educate < educare < educere = ex (out) +duce (lead), 교육하다
synagogue < syn (together) + agein (move) = assemble, 회당
fluent < fluere (flow), 유창한
P.1362 – §3 For three years–until he was ten–he attended the elementary school of the Nazareth synagogue. For these three years he studied the rudiments of the Book of the Law as it was recorded in the Hebrew tongue. For the following three years he studied in the advanced school and committed to memory, by the method of repeating aloud, the deeper teachings of the sacred law. He graduated from this school of the synagogue during his thirteenth year and was turned over to his parents by the synagogue rulers as an educated "son of the commandment"–henceforth a responsible citizen of the commonwealth of Israel, all of which entailed his attendance at the Passovers in Jerusalem; accordingly, he attended his first Passover that year in company with his father and mother.
rudiment < rude (coarse), 기본, 첫걸음
commonwealth = common + wealth (well being) = 연방, 단체, 국가, 공화국
entail < en (make) + tail (tax, split) = 수반하다, 세금 따위를 부과하다
|P.1362 – §4 At Nazareth the pupils sat on the floor
in a semicircle, while their teacher, the chazan, an officer of the synagogue,
sat facing them. Beginning with the Book of Leviticus, they passed on
to the study of the other books of the law, followed by the study of the
Prophets and the Psalms. The Nazareth synagogue possessed a complete copy
of the Scriptures in Hebrew. Nothing but the Scriptures was studied prior
to the twelfth year. In the summer months the hours for school were greatly
chazan (히브리어), 회당의 관리, chanter, 노래 인도자
prior to ~ 이전에
|P.1362 – §5 Jesus early became a master of Hebrew,
and as a young man, when no visitor of prominence happened to be sojourning
in Nazareth, he would often be asked to read the Hebrew scriptures to
the faithful assembled in the synagogue at the regular Sabbath services.
prominent < pro (forward) + minere (jut out), 툭 튀어나온, 탁월한
unison < uni (one) + sonus (sound), 한 목소리
P.1362 – §6 These synagogue schools, of course, had no textbooks. In teaching, the chazan would utter a statement while the pupils would in unison repeat it after him. When having access to the written books of the law, the student learned his lesson by reading aloud and by constant repetition.
P.1362 – §7 Next, in addition to his more formal
schooling, Jesus began to make contact with human nature from the four
quarters of the earth as men from many lands passed in and out of his
father’s repair shop. When he grew older, he mingled freely with the caravans
as they tarried near the spring for rest and nourishment. Being a fluent
speaker of Greek, he had little trouble in conversing with the majority
of the caravan travelers and conductors.
|four corners, 모든 영역에|
P.1362 – §8 Nazareth was a caravan way station and
crossroads of travel and largely gentile in population; at the same time
it was widely known as a center of liberal interpretation of Jewish traditional
law. In Galilee the Jews mingled more freely with the gentiles than was
their practice in Judea. And of all the cities of Galilee, the Jews of
Nazareth were most liberal in their interpretation of the social restrictions
based on the fears of contamination as a result of contact with
P.1363 – §0 the gentiles. And these conditions gave
rise to the common saying in Jerusalem, "Can any good thing come
out of Nazareth?"
way station, 중간 역, 통과 역
crossroads (단수 취급) 교차로
contaminate < contaminare < con + tangere (touch)
|P.1363 – §1 Jesus received his moral training and
spiritual culture chiefly in his own home. He secured much of his intellectual
and theological education from the chazan. But his real education–that
equipment of mind and heart for the actual test of grappling with the
difficult problems of life–he obtained by mingling with his fellow men.
It was this close association with his fellow men, young and old, Jew
and gentile, that afforded him the opportunity to know the human race.
Jesus was highly educated in that he thoroughly understood men and devotedly
secure < se (without) + cura (care) = (걱정 없이) 확보하다.
~in that = 이므로, ~ 어떤 점에서
devote < de (away, ~해 버리다) + vovere (선서하다) = 선서하여 헌신하다.
|P.1363 – §2 Throughout his years at the synagogue
he was a brilliant student, possessing a great advantage since he was
conversant with three languages. The Nazareth chazan, on the occasion
of Jesus’ finishing the course in his school, remarked to Joseph that
he feared he "had learned more from Jesus’ searching questions"
than he had "been able to teach the lad."
converse < con + versare (turn round with) < vertere (turn), 고통하다
conversant with ~에 정통한
P.1363 – §3 Throughout his course of study Jesus learned much and derived great inspiration from the regular Sabbath sermons in the synagogue. It was customary to ask distinguished visitors, stopping over the Sabbath in Nazareth, to address the synagogue. As Jesus grew up, he heard many great thinkers of the entire Jewish world expound their views, and many also who were hardly orthodox Jews since the synagogue of Nazareth was an advanced and liberal center of Hebrew thought and culture.
expound < exponere < ex + ponere (place), 설명하다
orthodox < ortho (right) + doxa (opinion), 정통파 견지
|P.1363 – §4 When entering school at seven years (at this time the Jews had just inaugurated a compulsory education law), it was customary for the pupils to choose their "birthday text," a sort of golden rule to guide them throughout their studies, one upon which they often expatiated at their graduation when thirteen years old. The text which Jesus chose was from the Prophet Isaiah: "The spirit of the Lord God is upon me, for the Lord has anointed me; he has sent me to bring good news to the meek, to bind up the brokenhearted, to proclaim liberty to the captives, and to set the spiritual prisoners free."||
expatiate < ex + spatiari (walk, spread out), 길게 말하다
capture < capere (take, seize), 붙잡다, 생포하다
P.1363 – §5 Nazareth was one of the twenty-four priest centers of the Hebrew nation. But the Galilean priesthood was more liberal in the interpretation of the traditional laws than were the Judean scribes and rabbis. And at Nazareth they were also more liberal regarding the observance of the Sabbath. It was therefore the custom for Joseph to take Jesus out for walks on Sabbath afternoons, one of their favorite jaunts being to climb the high hill near their home, from which they could obtain a panoramic view of all Galilee. To the northwest, on clear days, they could see the long ridge of Mount Carmel running down to the sea; and many times Jesus heard his father relate the story of Elijah, one of the first of that long line of Hebrew prophets, who reproved Ahab and exposed the priests of Baal.
To the north Mount Hermon raised its snowy peak in majestic splendor and
monopolized the skyline, almost 3,000 feet of the upper slopes glistening
white with perpetual snow. Far to the east they could discern the Jordan
valley and far beyond lay the rocky hills of Moab. Also to the south and
the east, when the sun shone upon their marble walls, they could see the
Greco-Roman cities of the Decapolis, with their amphitheaters and pretentious
temples. And when they lingered toward the going down of the sun, to the
west they could make out the sailing vessels on the distant Mediterranean.
observe < ob (before) + servare (watch), 보호하다, 망보다. 지키다. 준수하다
panorama < G pan (all) + horama (sight), horan (look)
reprove < re (reverse) + probare (prove worth)
jaunt (말 따위를 타고) 피곤한 여행, 쏘다니는 여행.
glisten = sparkle, 반짝이다
amphitheater < amphi (both sides) + theatron (theater, 반원 극장)
perpetual < per (through) + petere (go to), 영구한, 끝까지 가는
vessel < vasculum (small vase), 화분, 배
|P.1364 – §1 From four directions Jesus could observe
the caravan trains as they wended their way in and out of Nazareth, and
to the south he could overlook the broad and fertile plain country of Esdraelon,
stretching off toward Mount Gilboa and Samaria.
fertile < ferre (bear), 비옥한,
R: fertilizer (다산하게 만드는 약품)
wend, 가다, 구불구불 흐르다, 돌아가다.
|P.1364 – §2 When they did not climb the heights
to view the distant landscape, they strolled through the countryside and
studied nature in her various moods in accordance with the seasons. Jesus’
earliest training, aside from that of the home hearth, had to do with
a reverent and sympathetic contact with nature.
distant < dis (apart) + stare (stand), 멀리 있는
revere < re + vereri (fear), 존중하다,
sympathy < G: syn (with) + pathos (feeling)
P.1364 – §3 Before he was eight years of age, he was known to all the mothers and young women of Nazareth, who had met him and talked with him at the spring, which was not far from his home, and which was one of the social centers of contact and gossip for the entire town. This year Jesus learned to milk the family cow and care for the other animals. During this and the following year he also learned to make cheese and to weave. When he was ten years of age, he was an expert loom operator.
It was about this time that Jesus and the neighbor boy Jacob became great friends of the potter who worked near the flowing spring; and as they watched Nathan’s deft fingers mold the clay on the potter’s wheel, many times both of them determined to be potters when they grew up. Nathan was very fond of the lads and often gave them clay to play with, seeking to stimulate their creative imaginations by suggesting competitive efforts in modeling various objects and animals.
|potter’s wheel, 도공의 녹로, 도르래를 이용한 돌림판.|
6. HIS EIGHTH YEAR (A.D. 2) – P.1364
P.1364 – §4 This was an interesting year at school.
Although Jesus was not an unusual student, he was a diligent pupil and
belonged to the more progressive third of the class, doing his work so
well that he was excused from attendance one week out of each month. This
week he usually spent either with his fisherman uncle on the shores of
the Sea of Galilee near Magdala or on the farm of another uncle (his mother’s
brother) five miles south of Nazareth.
|diligent < diligere (love), (좋아서) 열심히 하는|
P.1364 – §5 Although his mother had become unduly
anxious about his health and safety, she gradually became reconciled to
these trips away from home. Jesus’ uncles and aunts were all very fond
of him, and there ensued a lively competition among them to secure his
company for these monthly visits throughout this and immediately subsequent
years. His first week’s sojourn on his uncle’s farm (since infancy) was
in January of this year; the first week’s fishing experience on the Sea
of Galilee occurred in the month of May.
|anxious < angere (choke), 숨이 막히게 걱정하는|
P.1364 – §6 About this time Jesus met a teacher of
mathematics from Damascus, and learning some new techniques of numbers,
he spent much time on mathematics for several years. He developed a keen
sense of numbers, distances, and proportions.
P.1364 – §7 Jesus began to enjoy his brother James
very much and by the end of this year had begun to teach him the alphabet.
Romans were interested in applied mathematics to solve engineering problems, including bridges, road-building.
Julian calender was devised by Sosigenes of Alexandria that included a leap day every four years in a 365-day cycle. (나중에 그레고리력으로 대체되었다, 1582년)
Diophantine equation, 예를 들면: x2 + y2 = z2 (x, y, z = 정수, 1, 2, 3 따위), 피타고라스 정리.
Pythagoras (570-495 BC): 바빌론으로 여행하고, 에집트에서 공부했다는 전설이 있다. (Clement, 신학자: 피타고라스는 에집트의 선지자 Soches의 제자였다고 한다)
Diophantus was born AD 201-215. lived in Alexandria.
Fermat’s Last Theorem:
xn + yn = zn, 이 공식에서 유일한 해답은 n=2 이다.
|P.1364 – §8 This year Jesus made arrangements to
exchange dairy products for lessons on the harp. He had an unusual liking
for everything musical. Later on he did much to promote an interest in
vocal music among his youthful associates. By the time he was eleven years
of age, he was a skillful harpist and greatly enjoyed entertaining both
family and friends with his extraordinary interpretations and able improvisations.
promote < pro (forward) + movere (move), 추진하다
improvise < in (not) + providere (forsee, provide), (미리 보지 못하고) 즉흥으로 대처하다.
P.1365 – §1 While Jesus continued to make enviable progress at school, all did not run smoothly for either parents or teachers. He persisted in asking many embarrassing questions concerning both science and religion, particularly regarding geography and astronomy. He was especially insistent on finding out why there was a dry season and a rainy season in Palestine. Repeatedly he sought the explanation for the great difference between the temperatures of Nazareth and the Jordan valley. He simply never ceased to ask such intelligent but perplexing questions.
P.1365 – §2 His third brother, Simon, was born on Friday evening, April 14, of this year, A.D. 2.
embarrass < en (in) + barra (bar), 막다, 당황하게 만들다.
astronomy < astronomia = star arranging, 천문학
|P.1365 – §3 In February, Nahor, one of the teachers
in a Jerusalem academy of the rabbis, came to Nazareth to observe Jesus,
having been on a similar mission to Zacharias’s home near Jerusalem. He
came to Nazareth at the instigation of John’s father. While at first he
was somewhat shocked by Jesus’ frankness and unconventional manner of
relating himself to things religious, he attributed it to the remoteness
of Galilee from the centers of Hebrew learning and culture and advised
Joseph and Mary to allow him to take Jesus back with him to Jerusalem,
where he could have the advantages of education and training at the center
of Jewish culture. Mary was half persuaded to consent; she was convinced
her eldest son was to become the Messiah, the Jewish deliverer; Joseph
hesitated; he was equally persuaded that Jesus was to grow up to become
a man of destiny, but what that destiny would prove to be he was profoundly
uncertain. But he never really doubted that his son was to fulfill some
great mission on earth. The more he thought about Nahor’s advice, the
more he questioned the wisdom of the proposed sojourn in Jerusalem.
instigate < in+stigare (prick), 자극하다
profound < pro (before) +fundus (bottom), deep
competent, 능력이 있는 < competere (agree)
|P.1365 – §4 Because of this difference of opinion between Joseph and Mary, Nahor requested permission to lay the whole matter before Jesus. Jesus listened attentively, talked with Joseph, Mary, and a neighbor, Jacob the stone mason, whose son was his favorite playmate, and then, two days later, reported that since there was such a difference of opinion among his parents and advisers, and since he did not feel competent to assume the responsibility for such a decision, not feeling strongly one way or the other, in view of the whole situation, he had finally decided to "talk with my Father who is in heaven"; and while he was not perfectly sure about the answer, he rather felt he should remain at home "with my father and mother," adding, "they who love me so much should be able to do more for me and guide me more safely than strangers who can only view my body and observe my mind but can hardly truly know me." They all marveled, and Nahor went his way, back to Jerusalem. And it was many years before the subject of Jesus’ going away from home again came up for consideration.||marvel < mirari (wonder at), 놀라다|
- 유란시아서 공부 모임의 규칙
- 류블랴나와 블레드 호수 구경 (slo)